How to format your references using the City, Territory and Architecture citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for City, Territory and Architecture. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Flowers J (2004) The route to atomic and quantum standards. Science 306:1324–1330
A journal article with 2 authors
Lewis SL, Maslin MA (2015) Defining the anthropocene. Nature 519:171–180
A journal article with 3 authors
Atran S, Axelrod R, Davis R (2007) Social science. Sacred barriers to conflict resolution. Science 317:1039–1040
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Gao X, An H, Fang W, et al (2014) Characteristics of the transmission of autoregressive sub-patterns in financial time series. Sci Rep 4:6290

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Basener WF (2006) Topology and Its Applications. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Goldsmith D, Covic A, Spaak J (eds) (2015) Cardio-Renal Clinical Challenges. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Ballerio S, Cerizza D (2013) Using Text Mining to Validate Diagnoses of Acute Myocardial Infarction. In: Grieco N, Marzegalli M, Paganoni AM (eds) New Diagnostic, Therapeutic and Organizational Strategies for Acute Coronary Syndromes Patients. Springer, Milano, pp 69–82

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for City, Territory and Architecture.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Researchers Identify New Possible Supernova Trigger. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992) New Denver Airport Followup. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Joshi RA (2010) Adaptive nulling in multiple beam antennas using quantized state adaptive algorithms. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Faludi S (2016) How Hillary Clinton Met Satan. New York Times SR5

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Flowers 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Flowers 2004; Lewis and Maslin 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lewis and Maslin 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Gao et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleCity, Territory and Architecture
AbbreviationCity Territ. Arch.
ISSN (online)2195-2701

Other styles