How to format your references using the City, Territory and Architecture citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for City, Territory and Architecture. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Walsh C (2001) correction: Enabling the chemistry of life. Nature 411:824
A journal article with 2 authors
Giessen H, Vogelgesang R (2009) Physics. Glimpsing the weak magnetic field of light. Science 326:529–530
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang J, Lu H, Huang L (2014) Calciphytoliths (calcium oxalate crystals) analysis for the identification of decayed tea plants (Camellia sinensis L.). Sci Rep 4:6703
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Bijl PK, Schouten S, Sluijs A, et al (2009) Early Palaeogene temperature evolution of the southwest Pacific Ocean. Nature 461:776–779

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stidwill D, Fletcher R (2010) Normal Binocular Vision. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., West Sussex, UK
An edited book
Debreceny R (2007) New Dimensions of Business Reporting and XBRL. DUV, Wiesbaden
A chapter in an edited book
MacFarland TW, Yates JM (2016) Mann–Whitney U Test. In: Yates JM (ed) Introduction to Nonparametric Statistics for the Biological Sciences Using R. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 103–132

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for City, Territory and Architecture.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) New Study Shows Elephants Console One Another. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2007) Aviation Finance: Observations on the Current FAA Funding Structure’s Support for Aviation Activities, Issues Affecting Future Costs, and Proposed Funding Changes. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Simonsen AE (2010) Risk and resilience: Girls’ experiences navigating space and relationships in a secure residential facility. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mcgirr M (2017) Sink Into the Silence of Summer. New York Times SR9

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Walsh 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Walsh 2001; Giessen and Vogelgesang 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Giessen and Vogelgesang 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Bijl et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleCity, Territory and Architecture
AbbreviationCity Territ. Arch.
ISSN (online)2195-2701

Other styles