How to format your references using the City, Territory and Architecture citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for City, Territory and Architecture. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kahan D (2010) Fixing the communications failure. Nature 463:296–297
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhou Z, Bai Y (2007) Structural biology: analysis of protein-folding cooperativity. Nature 445:E16-7; discussion E17-8
A journal article with 3 authors
Stefanová I, Dorfman JR, Germain RN (2002) Self-recognition promotes the foreign antigen sensitivity of naive T lymphocytes. Nature 420:429–434
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Brackhage C, Huang J-H, Schaller J, et al (2014) Readily available phosphorous and nitrogen counteract for arsenic uptake and distribution in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Sci Rep 4:4944

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Geren RL (2016) Applying the Building Code. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Ruiz-Lopez MF, Olivares del Valle FJ (eds) (2016) 9th Congress on Electronic Structure: Principles and Applications (ESPA 2014): A Conference Selection from Theoretical Chemistry Accounts, 1st ed. 2016. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Lutter S, Makinen T (2014) Regulation of Lymphatic Vasculature by Extracellular Matrix. In: Kiefer F, Schulte-Merker S (eds) Developmental Aspects of the Lymphatic Vascular System. Springer, Vienna, pp 55–65

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for City, Territory and Architecture.

Blog post
Luntz S (2015) Arthropods Shrink In Warm Water But Not In Hot Air. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1997) Health, Education and Human Services Information Systems Issue Area--Active Assignments. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
DeLima LE (2017) Implementing an Innovative Educational Program in an Era of Accountability: An Interview Study of the Expeditionary Learning Program. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel B (2017) Finally on Big Stage, Predators Stumble in an Uneven Performance. New York Times B9

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kahan 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Zhou and Bai 2007; Kahan 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zhou and Bai 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Brackhage et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleCity, Territory and Architecture
AbbreviationCity Territ. Arch.
ISSN (online)2195-2701

Other styles