How to format your references using the City, Territory and Architecture citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for City, Territory and Architecture. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
LeBlanc LJ (2014) Atomic physics: Polar exploration. Nature 505:627–628
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhang X, Zhao M (2014) Strain-induced phase transition and electron spin-polarization in graphene spirals. Sci Rep 4:5699
A journal article with 3 authors
Khanna KM, McNamara JT, Lefrançois L (2007) In situ imaging of the endogenous CD8 T cell response to infection. Science 318:116–120
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Goodge JW, Vervoort JD, Fanning CM, et al (2008) A positive test of East Antarctica-Laurentia juxtaposition within the Rodinia supercontinent. Science 321:235–240

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pérez Fontán F, Mariño Espiñeira P (2008) Modeling the Wireless Propagation Channel. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Sirenko YK, Ström S (eds) (2010) Modern Theory of Gratings: Resonant Scattering: Analysis Techniques and Phenomena. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Fallahpour M, Megías D (2009) Reversible Data Hiding Based On H.264/AVC Intra Prediction. In: Kim H-J, Katzenbeisser S, Ho ATS (eds) Digital Watermarking: 7th International Workshop, IWDW 2008, Busan, Korea, November 10-12, 2008. Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 52–60

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for City, Territory and Architecture.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Flat Battery? New Prototype Turns Waste Heat Into Electricity. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2000) Social Security Administration: Year 2000 Readiness Efforts Helped Ensure Century Rollover and Leap Year Success. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nguyen JR (2012) Staging Vietnamese America: Music and the performance of Vietnamese American identities. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Yablonsky L (2007) Hotel Rooms Become Overnight Stars. New York Times AR22

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (LeBlanc 2014).
This sentence cites two references (LeBlanc 2014; Zhang and Zhao 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zhang and Zhao 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Goodge et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleCity, Territory and Architecture
AbbreviationCity Territ. Arch.
ISSN (online)2195-2701

Other styles