How to format your references using the City, Territory and Architecture citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for City, Territory and Architecture. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Knowles SM (2010) Intellectual property. Fixing the legal framework for pharmaceutical research. Science 327:1083–1084
A journal article with 2 authors
Shapira P, Wang J (2010) Follow the money. Nature 468:627–628
A journal article with 3 authors
Rau AV, Dunningham JA, Burnett K (2003) Measurement-induced relative-position localization through entanglement. Science 301:1081–1084
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Saito T, Owen DM, Jiang F, et al (2008) Innate immunity induced by composition-dependent RIG-I recognition of hepatitis C virus RNA. Nature 454:523–527

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shelton T (2013) Business Models for the Social Mobile Cloud. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey
An edited book
Abdelgawad A (2012) Resource-Aware Data Fusion Algorithms for Wireless Sensor Networks. Springer US, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
Cipollone E, Cuomo F, Abbagnale A (2010) A Distributed Procedure for IEEE 802.15.4 PAN Coordinator Election in Emergency Scenarios. In: Giusto D, Iera A, Morabito G, Atzori L (eds) The Internet of Things: 20th Tyrrhenian Workshop on Digital Communications. Springer, New York, NY, pp 39–48

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for City, Territory and Architecture.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2017) A Coal Plant In India Has Found A Way To Turn Almost All Its CO2 Emissions Into Baking Powder. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2007) Motor Carrier Safety: A Statistical Approach Will Better Identify Commercial Carriers That Pose High Crash Risks Than Does the Current Federal Approach. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Saurage-Altenloh SM (2017) The Measured Influence of Supplier CSR on Brand Performance Expectations in B2B Relationships. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Robles F, Blinder A (2015) A Stark Image of a Shooting Carries Impact. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Knowles 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Knowles 2010; Shapira and Wang 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shapira and Wang 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Saito et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleCity, Territory and Architecture
AbbreviationCity Territ. Arch.
ISSN (online)2195-2701

Other styles