How to format your references using the Indian Journal of Orthopaedics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Indian Journal of Orthopaedics (IJO). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kuypers MMM. Microbiology. Sizing up the uncultivated majority Science (New York, NY) 2007;317(5844):1510-11.
A journal article with 2 authors
Thompson PM, Ollason JC. Lagged effects of ocean climate change on fulmar population dynamics Nature 2001;413(6854):417-20.
A journal article with 3 authors
Brennan MD, Cheong R, Levchenko A. Systems biology. How information theory handles cell signaling and uncertainty Science (New York, NY) 2012;338(6105):334-35.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hoeflich KP, Luo J, Rubie EA, Tsao MS, Jin O, Woodgett JR. Requirement for glycogen synthase kinase-3beta in cell survival and NF-kappaB activation Nature 2000;406(6791):86-90.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kazemi GA, Lehr JH, Perrochet P. Groundwater Age Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2006
An edited book
Kim R. Mathematics Teaching and Learning: South Korean Elementary Teachers’ Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching Albert LR, editor. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015
A chapter in an edited book
Averchi M. Husserl and Geiger on Feelings and Intentionality In: Ubiali M, Wehrle M, editors. Feeling and Value, Willing and Action: Essays in the Context of a Phenomenological Psychology Phaenomenologica Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. pp. 71-91.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Indian Journal of Orthopaedics.

Blog post
Hale T. Why You Hate The Word “Moist”, According To Science Published May 2, 2016. Accessed 30.10.2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Space Shuttle: Changes to the Solid Rocket Motor Contract Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Komatsuzaki T. Borrowing constraints and the business cycle in emerging markets 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW. A Puerto Rican Utility Makes Progress Toward a Debt Deal New York Times  December 25, 2015:B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleIndian Journal of Orthopaedics
ISSN (print)0019-5413
ISSN (online)1998-3727

Other styles