How to format your references using the Indian Journal of Orthopaedics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Indian Journal of Orthopaedics (IJO). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Salmeron M. Chemistry. CO meets CO, one at a time Science (New York, NY) 2014;343(6175):1083-84.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wikelski M, Thom C. Marine iguanas shrink to survive El Niño Nature 2000;403(6765):37-38.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xu X, Zhou Z, Wang X. The smallest known non-avian theropod dinosaur Nature 2000;408(6813):705-8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Banerjee A, Yang W, Karplus M, Verdine GL. Structure of a repair enzyme interrogating undamaged DNA elucidates recognition of damaged DNA Nature 2005;434(7033):612-18.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Flood JM. Wiley Gaap 2015 Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014
An edited book
Goldberg DJ, editor. Laser Dermatology Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005
A chapter in an edited book
Lam S-Y, Liong EC, Tipoe GL, Fung M. Expression of HIF-2α and HIF-3α in the Rat Carotid Body in Chronic Hypoxia In: Hayashida Y, Gonzalez C, Kondo H, editors. THE ARTERIAL CHEMORECEPTORS ADVANCES IN EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY Boston, MA: Springer US; 2006. pp. 29-36.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Indian Journal of Orthopaedics.

Blog post
Carpineti A. New Asteroid Is Orbiting Jupiter And The Sun The Wrong Way Around Published March 29, 2017. Accessed 30.10.2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Opportunities To Fully Integrate Environmental Research and Development into Developing Energy Technologies Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1978

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gonzales RA. Health care team effectiveness: The relationship between team task interdependence and group emotional competence 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron J. Montauk Gives Bravo’s ‘Summer House’ a Cold Reception New York Times January 8, 2017:A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleIndian Journal of Orthopaedics
ISSN (print)0019-5413
ISSN (online)1998-3727

Other styles