How to format your references using the Indian Journal of Orthopaedics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Indian Journal of Orthopaedics (IJO). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zatz M. Global voices of science. When science is not enough: fighting genetic disease in Brazil Science (New York, NY) 2005;308(5718):55-57.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cardoso da Silva JM, Tabarelli M. Tree species impoverishment and the future flora of the Atlantic forest of northeast Brazil Nature 2000;404(6773):72-74.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhurov V, Terzin T, Grbić M. Early blastomere determines embryo proliferation and caste fate in a polyembryonic wasp Nature 2004;432(7018):764-69.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Mullighan CG, Phillips LA, Su X, Ma J, Miller CB, Shurtleff SA, et al. Genomic analysis of the clonal origins of relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia Science (New York, NY) 2008;322(5906):1377-80.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zink M. Scalable Video on Demand West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd,.; 2005
An edited book
Rehm G, Uszkoreit H, editors. The Greek Language in the Digital Age Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012
A chapter in an edited book
Deb A, Roychoudhury S, Sarkar G. One-Shot Operational Matrices for Integration In: Roychoudhury S, Sarkar G, editors. Analysis and Identification of Time-Invariant Systems, Time-Varying Systems, and Multi-Delay Systems Using Orthogonal Hybrid Functions: Theory and Algorithms with MATLAB® Studies in Systems, Decision and Control Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. pp. 115-40.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Indian Journal of Orthopaedics.

Blog post
Fang J. Bonobo Study Reveals Our Ancestors Likely Had Less Body Fat and More Muscle Mass Published June 2, 2015. Accessed 30.10.2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Commercial Space Launches: FAA’s Risk Assessment Process Is Not Yet Updated Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mullin Piette AJ. Dialogic encounters among health care providers in pediatric critical care: A qualitative, collective case study 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Paulson M. Soho Rep to Return New York Times  April 25, 2017:C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleIndian Journal of Orthopaedics
ISSN (print)0019-5413
ISSN (online)1998-3727

Other styles