How to format your references using the Indian Journal of Orthopaedics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Indian Journal of Orthopaedics (IJO). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Roubik D. W. (2002). The value of bees to the coffee harvest. Nature, 417(6890), 708.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hirsh A. E., & Fraser H. B. (2001). Protein dispensability and rate of evolution. Nature, 411(6841), 1046-1049.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ruthazer E. S., Akerman C. J., & Cline H. T. (2003). Control of axon branch dynamics by correlated activity in vivo. Science (New York, N.Y.), 301(5629), 66-70.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Meiri M., Huchon D., Bar-Oz G., Boaretto E., Horwitz L. K., Maeir A. M., et al. (2013). Ancient DNA and population turnover in southern levantine pigs--signature of the sea peoples migration? Scientific reports, 3, 3035.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Joseph G. (2012). Doing Physics with Scientific Notebook. The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
An edited book
Skorokhod A. V. (2005). Basic Principles and Applications of Probability Theory. Prokhorov Y. V., editor. . Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer
A chapter in an edited book
Shaw R. H., & Sherwood J. A. (2006). Experimental Investigations of the Relationship of Baseball Bat Properties on Batted-Ball Performance. In: Moritz E. F., Haake S., editors. The Engineering of Sport 6: Volume 1: Developments for Sports New York, NY: Springer; . pp. 17-22.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Indian Journal of Orthopaedics.

Blog post
Andrew E. (2014). Explainer: What Is 4D Printing? Published December 19, 2014. Accessed 30.10.2018. Accessed October 30, 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1979). Review of the Administration of Research and Demonstration Grants by the Rehabilitation Services Administration. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gillaspy K. M. (2012). Words of Samsara

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Flegenheimer M. (2013). C Train Cafe? The M.T.A. May Put Up a Fight. New York Times. August 24, 2013:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIndian Journal of Orthopaedics
ISSN (print)0019-5413
ISSN (online)1998-3727

Other styles