How to format your references using the Medical Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medical Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. O’Neill LAJ. Immunology. After the toll rush. Science. 2004;303:1481–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Cox B, Yang Q. In quest of virtual tests for structural composites. Science. 2006;314:1102–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Hayes D, Griffin GB, Engel GS. Engineering coherence among excited states in synthetic heterodimer systems. Science. 2013;340:1431–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Gori S, Agrillo C, Dadda M, Bisazza A. Do fish perceive illusory motion? Sci Rep. 2014;4:6443.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Markley NG. Principles of Differential Equations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2004.
An edited book
1. Nayyeri K. Pro ASP.NET SignalR: Real-Time Communication in .NET with SignalR 2.1. White D, editor. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Mousley A, Novozhilova E, Kimber MJ, Day TA, Maule AG. Neuropeptide Physiology in Helminths. In: Geary TG, Maule AG, editors. Neuropeptide Systems as Targets for Parasite and Pest Control. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2010. p. 78–97.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medical Oncology.

Blog post
1. Andrew D. A Hot Bath Has Benefits Similar To Exercise [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Governmentwide Initiatives: Critical Issues Facing the Post-FTS 2000 Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995 Mar. Report No.: T-AIMD-95-108.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Uzoff PP. Virtual school teacher’s science efficacy beliefs: The effects of community of practice on science-teaching efficacy beliefs [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Tierney J. Easy Ways to Mend Your Marriage. New York Times. 2017 Sep 18;D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMedical Oncology
AbbreviationMed. Oncol.
ISSN (print)1357-0560
ISSN (online)1559-131X
ScopeCancer Research
General Medicine

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