How to format your references using the Medical Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medical Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Ruiz-Casares M. Mental health: Tailor informed-consent processes. Nature. 2014;513:304.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Neronov A, Vovk I. Evidence for strong extragalactic magnetic fields from Fermi observations of TeV blazars. Science. 2010;328:73–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Zhao W, Luo J, Jiao S. Comprehensive characterization of cancer subtype associated long non-coding RNAs and their clinical implications. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6591.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Feng N, Mi W, Cheng Y, Guo Z, Schwingenschlögl U, Bai H. First principles prediction of the magnetic properties of Fe-X₆ (X = S, C, N, O, F) doped monolayer MoS₂. Sci Rep. 2014;4:3987.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Dodson B, Hammett PC, Klerx R. Probabilistic Design for Optimization and Robustness for Engineers. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
1. Foulkes WD, Cooney KA, editors. Male Reproductive Cancers: Epidemiology, Pathology and Genetics. New York, NY: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Raiser K. Christianity and History. In: Raiser K, editor. Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker: Major Texts on Religion. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 36–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medical Oncology.

Blog post
1. Carpineti A. Why Can’t We See Stars In Space Photographs? IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. ASCS Needs Better Information To Adequately Assess Proposed County and State Office Automation. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1984 May. Report No.: IMTEC-84-11.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Warren KL. Agents of change: A new role for learners in online workplace training [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Shpigel B. How Johnson Might Balance Ambassadorship and the Jets. New York Times. 2017 Jan 20;D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMedical Oncology
AbbreviationMed. Oncol.
ISSN (print)1357-0560
ISSN (online)1559-131X
ScopeCancer Research
General Medicine
Hematology
Oncology

Other styles