How to format your references using the Medical Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medical Oncology (Med Oncol). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Kratky C. A coordinated approach is key for open access. Nature. 2013;500:503.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Brumfiel G, Knight J. Climate of conflict: in the shadow of war. Nature. 2003;426:748–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Whiten A, Horner V, de Waal FBM. Conformity to cultural norms of tool use in chimpanzees. Nature. 2005;437:737–40.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. He M, Dijkstra FA, Zhang K, Li X, Tan H, Gao Y, et al. Leaf nitrogen and phosphorus of temperate desert plants in response to climate and soil nutrient availability. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6932.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Schulman FY. Veterinarian’s Guide to Maximizing Biopsy Results. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
1. Khey DN. Emerging Trends in Drug Use and Distribution. Stogner J, Miller BL, editors. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Stafford C. Confronting “The Conditions” of Sénégalese Higher Education: Reframing Representation and Activism. In: DeJaeghere JG, Josić J, McCleary KS, editors. Education and Youth Agency: Qualitative Case Studies in Global Contexts. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 65–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medical Oncology.

Blog post
1. Hamilton K. Check Out This Huge, Spindly Squid Filmed Deep Beneath The Sea [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Challenge: Readiness Improving Yet Avoiding Disruption of Critical Services Will Require Additional Work. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999 Jul. Report No.: T-AIMD-99-233.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Spratley AM. Connecting Law and Creativity: The Role of Lawyers in Supporting Creative and Innovative Economic Development [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Hartocollis A. Snow Brings Days of Tumult for Nursing Home Residents. New York Times. 2014 Nov 24;A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMedical Oncology
AbbreviationMed. Oncol.
ISSN (print)1357-0560
ISSN (online)1559-131X
ScopeCancer Research
General Medicine

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