How to format your references using the Indian Journal of Ophthalmology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Indian Journal of Ophthalmology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sherwood S. Climate science: The Sun and the rain. Nature 2015;528(7581):200–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Xi Y, Chen D. Physiology. Partitioning the circadian clock. Science 2014;345(6201):1122–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wender PA, Kee JM, Warrington JM. Practical synthesis of prostratin, DPP, and their analogs, adjuvant leads against latent HIV. Science 2008;320(5876):649–52.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Busemann H, Young AF, Alexander CMO, Hoppe P, Mukhopadhyay S, Nittler LR. Interstellar chemistry recorded in organic matter from primitive meteorites. Science 2006;312(5774):727–30.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Plumb JA, Hanson LA. Health Maintenance and Principal Microbial Diseases of Cultured Fishes. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010.
An edited book
Rossi F. Controlled Drug Delivery Systems: Towards New Frontiers in Patient Care. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Rebeiro C, Mukhopadhyay D, Bhattacharya S. Advanced Time-Driven Cache Attacks on Block Ciphers. In: Mukhopadhyay D, Bhattacharya S, editors. Timing Channels in Cryptography: A Micro-Architectural Perspective. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. page 71–80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Indian Journal of Ophthalmology.

Blog post
Andrew E. New Study Reveals Most Influential Languages. IFLScience2014;


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Impoundments of Funds of Energy Research and Development Administration and Department of Commerce. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Reid LN. The Unintended Consequences of Narrowing Secondary Curriculum in Response to Low Standardized Test Scores. 2012;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg B. Deep Into the Wild With Jane Goodall. New York Times2017;C8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIndian Journal of Ophthalmology
AbbreviationIndian J. Ophthalmol.
ISSN (print)0301-4738
ISSN (online)1998-3689

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