How to format your references using the Pure and Applied Geophysics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pure and Applied Geophysics (ASABE). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rensberger, B. (2000). ESSAYS ON SCIENCE AND SOCIETY: The Nature of Evidence. Science (New York, N.Y.), 289(5476), 61.
A journal article with 2 authors
Galloway, L. F., Etterson, J. R. (2007). Transgenerational plasticity is adaptive in the wild. Science (New York, N.Y.), 318(5853), 1134–1136.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pelkmans, L., Püntener, D., Helenius, A. (2002). Local actin polymerization and dynamin recruitment in SV40-induced internalization of caveolae. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5567), 535–539.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Norell, M., Ji, Q., Gao, K., Yuan, C., Zhao, Y., Wang, L. (2002). Palaeontology: ‘modern’ feathers on a non-avian dinosaur. Nature, 416(6876), 36–37.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vettese, F. (2015). The Essential Retirement Guide. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Gupta, H. K. (Ed.). (2011). Encyclopedia of Solid Earth Geophysics. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Apker, T., Martinson, E. (2014). A Physics Inspired Finite State Machine Controller for Mobile Acoustic Arrays. In M. Ani Hsieh & G. Chirikjian (Eds.), Distributed Autonomous Robotic Systems: The 11th International Symposium (pp. 47–58). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pure and Applied Geophysics.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, August 3). What The Tim Hunt Brouhaha Shows About How Junior And Senior Academic Voices Are Heard. Accessed 30 October 2018,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1990). Air Traffic Control: Inadequate Planning Increases Risk of Computer Failures in Los Angeles (No. IMTEC-90-49). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Carver, J. R. (2009). CMO: Chief Marketing Officer or chief “marginalized” officer (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gates, A. (2013, June 21). One Despicable, Another Disdainful. New York Times, p. CT10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rensberger, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Galloway and Etterson, 2007; Rensberger, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Galloway and Etterson, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Norell et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titlePure and Applied Geophysics
ISSN (print)0033-4553
ISSN (online)1420-9136

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