How to format your references using the Pure and Applied Geophysics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pure and Applied Geophysics (ASABE). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stuessy, T. (2010). Botany. The rise of sunflowers. Science (New York, N.Y.), 329(5999), 1605–1606.
A journal article with 2 authors
Core, L. J., Lis, J. T. (2008). Transcription regulation through promoter-proximal pausing of RNA polymerase II. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5871), 1791–1792.
A journal article with 3 authors
Robinson, J. W. A., Witt, J. D. S., Blamire, M. G. (2010). Controlled injection of spin-triplet supercurrents into a strong ferromagnet. Science (New York, N.Y.), 329(5987), 59–61.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Lekshmy, P. R., Midhun, M., Ramesh, R., Jani, R. A. (2014). 18O depletion in monsoon rain relates to large scale organized convection rather than the amount of rainfall. Scientific Reports, 4, 5661.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dinet, J. (2014). Information Retrieval in Digital Environments. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Klingbeil, H. (2015). Theoretical Foundations of Synchrotron and Storage Ring RF Systems. (U. Laier & D. Lens, Eds.). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Telysheva, G., Dizhbite, T., Andersone, A., Volperts, A. (2008). Adsorption Behaviour of Lignosulphonates on the Interfaces Water–Inorganic/Organic Solids, Used for Paper Production. In J. P. Mota & S. Lyubchik (Eds.), Recent Advances in Adsorption Processes for Environmental Protection and Security (pp. 55–64). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pure and Applied Geophysics.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2016, August 31). Watch A ‘Ring Of Fire’ Solar Eclipse Live From Africa. Accessed 30 October 2018,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2002). Highway Infrastructure: Preliminary Information on the Timely Completion of Highway Construction Projects (No. GAO-02-1067T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Robey, A. M. (2017). The Benefits of Testing: Individual Differences Based on Student Factors (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S. K. (2005, September 8). World Briefing | Europe: Ukraine: Top Aide Replaced. New York Times, p. A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stuessy, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Core and Lis, 2008; Stuessy, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Core and Lis, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Lekshmy et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePure and Applied Geophysics
ISSN (print)0033-4553
ISSN (online)1420-9136

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