How to format your references using the Pure and Applied Geophysics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pure and Applied Geophysics (ASABE). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Clayton, J. (2010). The promise of T. cruzi genomics. Nature, 465(7301), S16-7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Trakhtenberg, E. F., Goldberg, J. L. (2011). Immunology. Neuroimmune communication. Science (New York, N.Y.), 334(6052), 47–48.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shen, Y., Buick, R., Canfield, D. E. (2001). Isotopic evidence for microbial sulphate reduction in the early Archaean era. Nature, 410(6824), 77–81.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Mavárez, J., Salazar, C. A., Bermingham, E., Salcedo, C., Jiggins, C. D., Linares, M. (2006). Speciation by hybridization in Heliconius butterflies. Nature, 441(7095), 868–871.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
De Spiegeleer, J., Schoutens, W., Van Hulle, C. (2014). The Handbook of Hybrid Securities. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Bossomaier, T. (2016). An Introduction to Transfer Entropy: Information Flow in Complex Systems. (L. Barnett, M. Harré, & J. T. Lizier, Eds.). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Stam, E., Suddle, K., Hessels, J., Stel, A. van. (2009). High-Growth Entrepreneurs, Public Policies, and Economic Growth. In R. Baptista & J. Leitao (Eds.), Public Policies for Fostering Entrepreneurship: A European Perspective (pp. 91–110). New York, NY: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pure and Applied Geophysics.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, October 31). Scientific Explanations For Halloween Monsters. Accessed 30 October 2018,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). [Comments on the Federal Communications Commission’s Implementation of Section 254(h) of the Communications Act of 1934] (No. B-278820). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jekanowski, E. C. (2017). District Leadership and Systemic Inclusion: A Case Study of One Inclusive and Effective School District (Doctoral dissertation). Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2001, June 26). FREELANCERS WIN IN COPYRIGHT CASE. New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Clayton, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Clayton, 2010; Trakhtenberg and Goldberg, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Trakhtenberg and Goldberg, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Mavárez et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titlePure and Applied Geophysics
ISSN (print)0033-4553
ISSN (online)1420-9136

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