How to format your references using the Pure and Applied Geophysics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pure and Applied Geophysics (ASABE). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Livingstone, M. S. (2000). Is it warm? Is it real? Or just low spatial frequency? Science (New York, N.Y.), 290(5495), 1299b.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chudinovskikh, L., Boehler, R. (2001). High-pressure polymorphs of olivine and the 660-km seismic discontinuity. Nature, 411(6837), 574–577.
A journal article with 3 authors
D’Orazio, D. J., Haiman, Z., Schiminovich, D. (2015). Relativistic boost as the cause of periodicity in a massive black-hole binary candidate. Nature, 525(7569), 351–353.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Volkova, V. V., Lu, Z., Lanzas, C., Scott, H. M., Gröhn, Y. T. (2013). Modelling dynamics of plasmid-gene mediated antimicrobial resistance in enteric bacteria using stochastic differential equations. Scientific Reports, 3, 2463.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McCurley, L. (2016). Professional Rope Access. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Hornberger, N. H. (Ed.). (2008). Encyclopedia of Language and Education. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Bakari, S., André, F., Seigneurin-Berny, D., Delaforge, M., Rolland, N., Frelet-Barrand, A. (2014). Lactococcus lactis: Recent Developments in Functional Expression of Membrane Proteins. In I. Mus-Veteau (Ed.), Membrane Proteins Production for Structural Analysis (pp. 107–132). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pure and Applied Geophysics.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015, July 10). Squirrel Virus Suspected in the Deaths of Three People in Germany. Accessed 30 October 2018,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2008). Information Technology: SSA Has Taken Key Steps for Managing Its Investments, but Needs to Strengthen Oversight and Fully Define Policies and Procedures (No. GAO-08-1020). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schroeder, M. (2017). Investigating the Learnability of a Rogue Grammar: Null Subject Parameter Resetting in Second Language Acquisition (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. (2017, January 26). Midsummer in Newtown. New York Times, p. C9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Livingstone, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Chudinovskikh and Boehler, 2001; Livingstone, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chudinovskikh and Boehler, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Volkova et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titlePure and Applied Geophysics
ISSN (print)0033-4553
ISSN (online)1420-9136

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