How to format your references using the Pure and Applied Geophysics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pure and Applied Geophysics (ASABE). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Friston, K. J. (2009). Modalities, modes, and models in functional neuroimaging. Science (New York, N.Y.), 326(5951), 399–403.
A journal article with 2 authors
Norskov, J. K., Christensen, C. H. (2006). Chemistry. Toward efficient hydrogen production at surfaces. Science (New York, N.Y.), 312(5778), 1322–1323.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bauer, P., Thorpe, A., Brunet, G. (2015). The quiet revolution of numerical weather prediction. Nature, 525(7567), 47–55.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Marson, A., Kretschmer, K., Frampton, G. M., Jacobsen, E. S., Polansky, J. K., MacIsaac, K. D., … Young, R. A. (2007). Foxp3 occupancy and regulation of key target genes during T-cell stimulation. Nature, 445(7130), 931–935.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zhang, L., Peng, M., Chang, D., Xu, Y. (2016). Dam Failure Mechanisms and Risk Assessment. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd.
An edited book
Pisla, D., Ceccarelli, M., Husty, M., Corves, B. (Eds.). (2010). New Trends in Mechanism Science: Analysis and Design (Vol. 5). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Jetley, R., Sudarsan, S., R., S., Ramaswamy, S. (2013). Medical Software – Issues and Best Practices. In C. Hota & P. K. Srimani (Eds.), Distributed Computing and Internet Technology: 9th International Conference, ICDCIT 2013, Bhubaneswar, India, February 5-8, 2013. Proceedings (pp. 69–91). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pure and Applied Geophysics.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, April 30). Secrets Of ‘Dim Matter’ Revealed. Accessed 30 October 2018,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2007). Information Technology: Census Bureau Needs to Improve Its Risk Management of Decennial Systems (No. GAO-08-79). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Malekian, A. (2009). Combinatorial problems in online advertising (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2006, January 5). Justices Let U.S. Transfer Padilla to Civilian Custody. New York Times, p. A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Friston, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Friston, 2009; Norskov and Christensen, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Norskov and Christensen, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Marson et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titlePure and Applied Geophysics
ISSN (print)0033-4553
ISSN (online)1420-9136

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