How to format your references using the Pure and Applied Geophysics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pure and Applied Geophysics (ASABE). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sykes, M. V. (2008). Planetary science. The planet debate continues. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5871), 1765.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rappaport, S. M., Smith, M. T. (2010). Epidemiology. Environment and disease risks. Science (New York, N.Y.), 330(6003), 460–461.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rouse, G. W., Goffredi, S. K., Vrijenhoek, R. C. (2004). Osedax: bone-eating marine worms with dwarf males. Science (New York, N.Y.), 305(5684), 668–671.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Yong, H. S., Lim, P.-E., Tan, J., Ng, Y. F., Eamsobhana, P., Suana, I. W. (2014). Molecular phylogeny of Orthetrum dragonflies reveals cryptic species of Orthetrum pruinosum. Scientific Reports, 4, 5553.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Heuer, A. (2012). Der perfekte Tipp. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Cranefield, S., Song, I. (Eds.). (2012). Agent Based Simulation for a Sustainable Society and Multi-agent Smart Computing: International Workshops, PRIMA 2011, Wollongong, Australia, November 14, 2011 Revised Selected Papers (Vol. 7580). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Islam, S. M. N., Watanapalachaikul, S. (2005). Market Efficiency Models and Tests. In S. Watanapalachaikul (Ed.), Empirical Finance: Modelling and Analysis of Emerging Financial and Stock Markets (pp. 53–63). Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag HD.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pure and Applied Geophysics.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, August 22). What Does Science Say About Average Penis Sizes From Around The World? Accessed 30 October 2018,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1997). Weather Satellites: Planning for the Geostationary Satellite Program Needs More Attention (No. AIMD-97-37). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Laskey, E. (2013). Plasma glucagon during development of insulin resistance among healthy individuals (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, D. (2010, June 13). Heroes, Studs and Raging Bulls. New York Times, p. BR12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sykes, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Rappaport and Smith, 2010; Sykes, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rappaport and Smith, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Yong et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePure and Applied Geophysics
ISSN (print)0033-4553
ISSN (online)1420-9136

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