How to format your references using the Brain and Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Brain and Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Clayton DD. We have touched the dust from dying stars. Nature 2000;404:329.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Errington JR, Debenedetti PG. Relationship between structural order and the anomalies of liquid water. Nature 2001;409:318–21.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
O’Connor DH, Huber D, Svoboda K. Reverse engineering the mouse brain. Nature 2009;461:923–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Kravchenko JE, Rogozin IB, Koonin EV, Chumakov PM. Transcription of mammalian messenger RNAs by a nuclear RNA polymerase of mitochondrial origin. Nature 2005;436:735–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Rim CT, Mi C. Wireless Power Transfer for Electric Vehicles and Mobile Devices. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
[1]
Ho Y-S, editor. Advances in Image and Video Technology: 5th Pacific Rim Symposium, PSIVT 2011, Gwangju, South Korea, November 20-23, 2011, Proceedings, Part I. vol. 7087. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Borsdorf A, Stadel C. Ethnic and Demographic Structures and Processes. In: Stadel C, editor. The Andes: A Geographical Portrait, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015, p. 133–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Brain and Development.

Blog post
[1]
Andrew E. How Scorpion Venom Could Yield New Cancer Treatment. IFLScience 2015. https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/how-scorpion-venom-could-yield-new-cancer-treatment/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Technology: America’s Schools Not Designed or Equipped for 21st Century. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Salam S. Interplay between Fines Content and Strength Characteristics of CA 6 and CA 2 Crushed Limestone Aggregate. Doctoral dissertation. Southern Illinois University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Vecsey G. With Memories Entrenched, a Hallowed Site Plows Forward. New York Times 2014:SP5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBrain and Development
AbbreviationBrain Dev.
ISSN (print)0387-7604
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Clinical Neurology
Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
Developmental Neuroscience

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