How to format your references using the Brain and Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Brain and Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Marx V. Cancer: A most exceptional response. Nature 2015;520:389–93.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Hinrichs K-U, Inagaki F. Biogeochemistry. Downsizing the deep biosphere. Science 2012;338:204–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Dharmasiri N, Dharmasiri S, Estelle M. The F-box protein TIR1 is an auxin receptor. Nature 2005;435:441–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Zhang JV, Ren P-G, Avsian-Kretchmer O, Luo C-W, Rauch R, Klein C, et al. Obestatin, a peptide encoded by the ghrelin gene, opposes ghrelin’s effects on food intake. Science 2005;310:996–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Simmendinger H. HOAI 2013: Praxisleitfaden für Ingenieure und Architekten. D-69451 Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH; 2013.
An edited book
[1]
Lee C, Seigneur J-M, Park JJ, Wagner RR, editors. Secure and Trust Computing, Data Management, and Applications: STA 2011 Workshops: IWCS 2011 and STAVE 2011, Loutraki, Greece, June 28-30, 2011. Proceedings. vol. 187. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Kazar BM, Celik M. Comparing Exact and Approximate SAR Model Solutions. In: Celik M, editor. Spatial AutoRegression (SAR) Model: Parameter Estimation Techniques, Boston, MA: Springer US; 2012, p. 35–46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Brain and Development.

Blog post
[1]
Andrew E. Carcass Of Extremely Rare Megamouth Shark Washes Ashore In The Philippines. IFLScience 2015. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/carcass-extremely-rare-megamouth-shark-washes-ashore-philippines/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Environmental Satellites: Strategy Needed to Sustain Critical Climate and Space Weather Measurements. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Clayton-Clark C. Academic performance strategies implemented by successful California superintendents in low-performing school districts. Doctoral dissertation. Pepperdine University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Protess B. Corzine and Regulators Settle in MF Global Case. New York Times 2017:B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBrain and Development
AbbreviationBrain Dev.
ISSN (print)0387-7604
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Clinical Neurology
Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
Developmental Neuroscience

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