How to format your references using the Indian Journal of Medical Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Indian Journal of Medical Research (IJMR). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stewart I. Schrodinger’s mousetrap. Part 1. Nature 2005; 433 : 200–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Li S, Wang J. A compact trench-assisted multi-orbital-angular-momentum multi-ring fiber for ultrahigh-density space-division multiplexing (19 rings × 22 modes). Sci Rep 2014; 4 : 3853.
A journal article with 3 authors
Paniagua-Domínguez R, Abujetas DR, Sánchez-Gil JA. Ultra low-loss, isotropic optical negative-index metamaterial based on hybrid metal-semiconductor nanowires. Sci Rep 2013; 3 : 1507.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Phillips PEM, Stuber GD, Heien MLAV, Wightman RM, Carelli RM. Subsecond dopamine release promotes cocaine seeking. Nature 2003; 422 : 614–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hites RA, Raff JD. Elements of Environmental Chemistry. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Otto-Zimmermann K, editor. Resilient Cities 2: Cities and Adaptation to Climate Change – Proceedings of the Global Forum 2011. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012 L, 438 p p.
A chapter in an edited book
Confalonieri N, Manzotti A. UKR Surgical Technique: Pearls and Pitfalls. In: Confalonieri N, Romagnoli S, editors. Small Implants in Knee Reconstruction. Milano: Springer; 2013 p. 43–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Indian Journal of Medical Research.

Blog post
Andrew E. Ignore the IQ Test: Your Level of Intelligence is Not Fixed for Life. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014. Available from:, accessed on October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. NASA Procurement: The 1973 Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor Contractor Selection. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987 Sep. Report No.: NSIAD-87-215.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ulaganathan MN. Building a volunteered geographic information system (VGIS): A mobile application for disaster management [Doctoral dissertation]. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach; 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Joy S. Pursuing Inside-Out Strategies. New York Times. 2015 : D17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleIndian Journal of Medical Research
AbbreviationIndian J. Med. Res.
ISSN (print)0971-5916
ScopeGeneral Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
General Medicine

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