How to format your references using the Indian Journal of Medical Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Indian Journal of Medical Research (IJMR). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Duncan R. Earth science: Deadly combination. Nature 2015; 527 : 172–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Michel-Kerjan E, Kunreuther H. Disaster management. Redesigning flood insurance. Science 2011; 333 : 408–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang D, Song C, Barabási A-L. Quantifying long-term scientific impact. Science 2013; 342 : 127–32.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Schlesinger ME, Ramankutty N, Andronova N, Margolis M, Kerr RA. Temperature oscillations in the north atlantic. Science 2000; 289 : 547b–8b.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Matlock MD, Morgan RA. Ecological Engineering Design. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Weible CM, Heikkila T, Ingold K, Fischer M, editors. Policy Debates on Hydraulic Fracturing: Comparing Coalition Politics in North America and Europe. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US; 2016 XVII, 276 p. 18 illus., 1 illus. in color p.
A chapter in an edited book
Meslé F, Vallin J, Shkolnikov V. Is Mortality Under-Estimated? In: Vallin J, editor. Mortality and Causes of Death in 20th-Century Ukraine. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012 p. 77–88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Indian Journal of Medical Research.

Blog post
Andrew E. Telescopes On The Ground May Be Cheaper, But Hubble Shows Why They Are Not Enough. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015. Available from:, accessed on October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. [Comments on Customs Commissioner’s Alleged Unauthorized Use of Government Automobiles]. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987 May. Report No.: B-210555.22.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ivy R. Regional Subsurface Investigation of the Uppermost Cretaceous of Northern Louisiana [Doctoral dissertation]. Lafayette, LA: University of Louisiana; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Oestreich JR. Aiding and Abetting Operatic Dabblers. New York Times. 2017 : C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleIndian Journal of Medical Research
AbbreviationIndian J. Med. Res.
ISSN (print)0971-5916
ScopeGeneral Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
General Medicine

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