How to format your references using the Indian Journal of Medical Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Indian Journal of Medical Research (IJMR). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Shen H. Interactive notebooks: Sharing the code. Nature 2014; 515 : 151–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Guerrero I, Ruiz i Altaba A. Development. Longing for ligand: hedgehog, patched, and cell death. Science 2003; 301 : 774–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang J, Wang B, Qiu H. Coalescence and breakup of oppositely charged droplets. Sci Rep 2014; 4 : 7123.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Suzuki H, Thiele TR, Faumont S, Ezcurra M, Lockery SR, Schafer WR. Functional asymmetry in Caenorhabditis elegans taste neurons and its computational role in chemotaxis. Nature 2008; 454 : 114–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tripathi N, Singh RS, Hills CD. Reclamation of Mine-Impacted Land for Ecosystem Recovery. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
Kihl LA. Gender Politics in US College Athletic Departments: The Case of the University of Minnesota Merger. Schull VD, Shaw S, editors. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US; 2016 XVII, 147 p. 5 illus., 3 illus. in color p.
A chapter in an edited book
Maeda K, Mizubayashi H. Nanoscopic Architecture and Microstructure. In: Czichos H, Saito T, Smith L, editors. Springer Handbook of Metrology and Testing. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011 p. 205–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Indian Journal of Medical Research.

Blog post
Andrew E. What Is The Biggest Star In The Universe? IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015. Available from:, accessed on October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Payments in Lieu of Taxes for Federal Property. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1981 Oct. Report No.: 116666.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nguyen J. Adherence to medications among Vietnamese Americans 65 years of age and older [Doctoral dissertation]. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barnes B. ‘La La Land’ Leads the Race for the Globes. New York Times. 2016 : C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleIndian Journal of Medical Research
AbbreviationIndian J. Med. Res.
ISSN (print)0971-5916
ScopeGeneral Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
General Medicine

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