How to format your references using the Combination Products in Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Combination Products in Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Masood E. Expert assessments can work if lessons are learned. Nature. 2012;490:145.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Tholl D, Gershenzon J. BIOCHEMISTRY. The flowering of a new scent pathway in rose. Science. 2015;349:28–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Li C-YT, Poo M-M, Dan Y. Burst spiking of a single cortical neuron modifies global brain state. Science. 2009;324:643–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Xiang T, Wang L-R, Ma L, Han Z-Y, Wang R, Cheng C, et al. From commodity polymers to functional polymers. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4604.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Ollivier J-P, Torrenti J-M, Carcassès M. Physical Properties of Concrete and Concrete Constituents. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
1. López-Basaguren A, Escajedo San Epifanio L, editors. The Ways of Federalism in Western Countries and the Horizons of Territorial Autonomy in Spain: Volume 2. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Rampazzo R, D’Onofrio M, Zaggia S, Paturel G, Boselli A, Ferrarese L, et al. The Impact of Surveys. In: D’Onofrio M, Rampazzo R, Zaggia S, editors. From the Realm of the Nebulae to Populations of Galaxies: Dialogues on a Century of Research. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 381–477.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Combination Products in Therapy.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. Italian Circus Paints Puppies And Calls Them Pandas [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Aviation Security: Urgent Issues Need to Be Addressed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996 Sep. Report No.: T-RCED/NSIAD-96-251.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Zivkovic O. Ternary nanomaterials: Synthesis by alkalide reduction and characterization [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Wakin DJ, Walsh MW. Other Orchestras Fear Paying Price for Philadelphia Pension Crisis. New York Times. 2011 Dec 1;C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCombination Products in Therapy
ISSN (print)2195-5859
ISSN (online)2190-9180

Other styles