How to format your references using the Combination Products in Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Combination Products in Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Schorghofer N. Dynamics of ice ages on Mars. Nature. 2007;449:192–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Nutman AP, Friend CRL. Comment on “A vestige of Earth’s oldest ophiolite.” Science. 2007;318:746.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Myrskylä M, Kohler H-P, Billari FC. Advances in development reverse fertility declines. Nature. 2009;460:741–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Schopf JW, Kudryavtsev AB, Agresti DG, Wdowiak TJ, Czaja AD. Laser--Raman imagery of Earth’s earliest fossils. Nature. 2002;416:73–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Islam MR, Chhetri AB, Khan MM. The Greening of Petroleum Operations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
1. Everitt AV, Rattan SIS, Couteur DG le, Cabo R de, editors. Calorie Restriction, Aging and Longevity. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Ohbayashi T, Okochi I, Sato H, Ono T, Chiba S. Rapid decline of endemic snails in the Ogasawara Islands, Western Pacific Ocean. In: Kawakami K, Okochi I, editors. Restoring the Oceanic Island Ecosystem: Impact and Management of Invasive Alien Species in the Bonin Islands. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2010. p. 27–33.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Combination Products in Therapy.

Blog post
1. Davis J. Plants May Arrange Their Flowers To Manipulate Bee Flight Patterns. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Federal Communications Commission: Regulatory Fee Process Needs to Be Updated. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2012 Aug. Report No.: GAO-12-686.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Reller TL. Exploring differences in teacher attitudes and instructional strategies between traditional and block schedule high schools: A comparison of two small schools [Doctoral dissertation]. [ St. Charles, MO]: Lindenwood University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kenigsberg B. Shot Caller. New York Times. 2017 Aug 17;C9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCombination Products in Therapy
ISSN (print)2195-5859
ISSN (online)2190-9180

Other styles