How to format your references using the Combination Products in Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Combination Products in Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Check E. National Academies launch grants for interdisciplinary work. Nature. 2003;422:791.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Saviane C, Silver RA. Fast vesicle reloading and a large pool sustain high bandwidth transmission at a central synapse. Nature. 2006;439:983–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Jewitt D, Aussel H, Evans A. The size and albedo of the Kuiper-belt object (20000) Varuna. Nature. 2001;411:446–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Naruse M, Tani T, Yasuda H, Tate N, Ohtsu M, Naya M. Randomness in highly reflective silver nanoparticles and their localized optical fields. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6077.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Sauter M. From GSM to LTE-Advanced. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
1. Gaag LC van der, Feelders AJ, editors. Probabilistic Graphical Models: 7th European Workshop, PGM 2014, Utrecht, The Netherlands, September 17-19, 2014. Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Esteves Verssimo P, Baldoni R, Bortnikov V, Chockler G, Dekel E, Laventman G, et al. CoMiFin Architecture and Semantic Rooms. In: Baldoni R, Chockler G, editors. Collaborative Financial Infrastructure Protection: Tools, Abstractions, and Middleware. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 85–98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Combination Products in Therapy.

Blog post
1. Hale T. Is Radiation From Your Mobile Phone Killing Your Sperm? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. D.C. Nonappropriated Revenue. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994 Jan. Report No.: AIMD-94-71R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Goldstein J. Murder in Colonial Albany: European and Indian Responses to Cross-Cultural Murders [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Hubbard B, Saad H. Thousands Evacuated From Besieged Syrian Towns. New York Times. 2017 Apr 14;A7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCombination Products in Therapy
ISSN (print)2195-5859
ISSN (online)2190-9180

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