How to format your references using the In Silico Pharmacology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for In Silico Pharmacology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Meinwald J. Retrospective. Thomas Eisner (1929-2011). Science. 2011 Apr 29;332(6029):549.
A journal article with 2 authors
Purves D, Pacala S. Predictive models of forest dynamics. Science. 2008 Jun 13;320(5882):1452–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen W, Shimada S, Tanaka M. Synthesis and structure of formally hexavalent palladium complexes. Science. 2002 Jan 11;295(5553):308–10.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hessels JWT, Ransom SM, Stairs IH, Freire PCC, Kaspi VM, Camilo F. A radio pulsar spinning at 716 Hz. Science. 2006 Mar 31;311(5769):1901–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kindmann R, Kraus M. Steel Structures. Berlin, Germany: Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG; 2012.
An edited book
Bubak M, Albada GD van, Dongarra J, Sloot PMA, editors. Computational Science – ICCS 2008: 8th International Conference, Kraków, Poland, June 23-25, 2008, Proceedings, Part II. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Gegg BC, Suh CS, Luo ACJ. Cutting Dynamics Mechanism. In: Suh CS, Luo ACJ, editors. Machine Tool Vibrations and Cutting Dynamics. New York, NY: Springer; 2011. p. 101–21.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for In Silico Pharmacology.

Blog post
Andrews R. The Earth’s Inner Core Is Structured Like A “Deck Of Cards” [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Subcontract Estimate For E-2c Passive Detection Systems in Prime Contract With Grumman Aerospace Corporation. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1974 Jul. Report No.: 093158.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Colchero Dorado R. Recovering memory in Jordi Soler’s “Los rojos de ultramar” [Doctoral dissertation]. [Chapel Hill, NC]: University of North Carolina; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Swanson A. Internal Discord Hinders Trump’s Trade Agenda. New York Times. 2017 Oct 20;A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Meinwald 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Meinwald 2011; Purves and Pacala 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Purves and Pacala 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Hessels et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleIn Silico Pharmacology
AbbreviationIn Silico Pharmacol.
ISSN (online)2193-9616

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