How to format your references using the In Silico Pharmacology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for In Silico Pharmacology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Leach M. Accommodating dissent. Nature. 2007 Nov 22;450(7169):483.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ruud J, Brüning JC. Metabolism: Light on leptin link to lipolysis. Nature. 2015 Nov 5;527(7576):43–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Duan LM, Cirac JI, Zoller P. Geometric manipulation of trapped ions for quantum computation. Science. 2001 Jun 1;292(5522):1695–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Fleetwood F, Klint S, Hanze M, Gunneriusson E, Frejd FY, Ståhl S, et al. Simultaneous targeting of two ligand-binding sites on VEGFR2 using biparatopic Affibody molecules results in dramatically improved affinity. Sci. Rep. 2014 Dec 17;4:7518.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ketring KL, Glaze MB. Atlas of Feline Ophthalmology. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.; 2012.
An edited book
Seidl M. UML @ Classroom: An Introduction to Object-Oriented Modeling. Scholz M, Huemer C, Kappel G, editors. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Antoñanzas-Torres J, Antoñanzas-Torres F, Sodupe-Ortega E, Martínez-de-Pisón FJ. Optimization of Solar Integration in Combined Cycle Gas Turbines (ISCC). In: Herrero Á, Baruque B, Klett F, Abraham A, Snášel V, Carvalho ACPLF de, et al., editors. International Joint Conference SOCO’13-CISIS’13-ICEUTE’13: Salamanca, Spain, September 11th-13th, 2013 Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 31–40.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for In Silico Pharmacology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Bats Upside Down Look Like Breakdancers [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Ship Acquisitions. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994 Jan. Report No.: NSIAD-94-96R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kelly LA. Nursing surveillance in the acute care setting: Latent variable development and analysis [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tucson, AZ]: University of Arizona; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Corkery M, Walsh MW. Governor of Puerto Rico Warns of Looming Default Without Bankruptcy Plan. New York Times. 2015 Dec 17;B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Leach 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Leach 2007; Ruud and Brüning 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ruud and Brüning 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Fleetwood et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleIn Silico Pharmacology
AbbreviationIn Silico Pharmacol.
ISSN (online)2193-9616

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