How to format your references using the In Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for In Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P. A dose of reality. Nature 2004;432:655.
A journal article with 2 authors
Birks HJB, Birks HH. Paleoecology. The rise and fall of forests. Science 2004;305:484–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mohr JT, Krout MR, Stoltz BM. Natural products as inspiration for the development of asymmetric catalysis. Nature 2008;455:323–32.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Fayrer-Hosken RA, Grobler D, Van Altena JJ, et al. Immunocontraception of African elephants. Nature 2000;407:149.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jelaska D. Gears and Gear Drives. Chichester, UK: : John Wiley & Sons, Ltd 2012.
An edited book
Busby JT, Ilevbare G, Andresen PL, editors. Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Environmental Degradation of Materials in Nuclear Power Systems — Water Reactors. Cham: : Springer International Publishing 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Pinsent A. Aquinas and the Second Person in the Formation of Virtues. In: Mooney TB, Nowacki M, eds. Aquinas, Education and the East. Dordrecht: : Springer Netherlands 2013. 47–71.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for In Practice.

Blog post
Andrew D. Gravitational Waves Found Again: Here’s How They Could Whisper The Universe’s Secrets. IFLScience. 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Protest Against Rejection of Bid. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 1973.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kim CS. Electronic Transport of Thin Crystals in Ruthenium Chloride. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B. Theater; Into the Trenches of World War I. New York Times. 2017;:AR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIn Practice
AbbreviationIn Pract.
ISSN (print)0263-841X
ISSN (online)2042-7689
ScopeGeneral Veterinary

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