How to format your references using the In Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for In Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Conklin BR. Journal club. A geneticist wonders why we need to sleep. Nature 2009;461:573.
A journal article with 2 authors
Koch C, Crick F. The zombie within. Nature 2001;411:893.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xing M, Li X, Zhang J. Synergistic effect on the visible light activity of Ti3+ doped TiO2 nanorods/boron doped graphene composite. Sci Rep 2014;4:5493.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lippman A, Newman SA, Testa G, et al. The Ethics of Deriving Gametes from ES Cells. Science 2005;307:515c–7c.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Borisenko VE, Ossicini S. What is What in the Nanoworld. Weinheim, Germany: : Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA 2012.
An edited book
Brooks AL, Brahnam S, Jain LC, editors. Technologies of Inclusive Well-Being: Serious Games, Alternative Realities, and Play Therapy. Berlin, Heidelberg: : Springer 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Ford SJ, Ferriani S, Probert DR. Overcoming the Innovation Barrier: A Search-Selection Model of Breakthrough Innovation in Large Firms. In: Pfeffermann N, Minshall T, Mortara L, eds. Strategy and Communication for Innovation. Berlin, Heidelberg: : Springer 2013. 41–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for In Practice.

Blog post
Fang J. Plants Are ‘Biting’ Back With The Same Mineral Found In Human Teeth. IFLScience. 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. ICBM Modernization: Rail Garrison Production Decision and Launch Car Acquisition Should Be Delayed. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Butts P. Green Roof Vegetable Production in Three Different Growth Media. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
LISA W. FODERARO; Reporting for this article was contributed by Ford Fessenden, as well as by Kathleen McGrory in Westchester, Akhtar F, et al. That Sound You Hear? The Market Coming Down to Earth. New York Times. 2006;:14LI5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIn Practice
AbbreviationIn Pract.
ISSN (print)0263-841X
ISSN (online)2042-7689
ScopeGeneral Veterinary

Other styles