How to format your references using the In Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for In Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Henderson GM. Ocean science. Coral clues to rapid sea-level change. Science. 2005;308:361–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang G, Or D. Trophic interactions induce spatial self-organization of microbial consortia on rough surfaces. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6757.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang PC, Keleshian AM, Sachs F. Voltage-induced membrane movement. Nature. 2001;413:428–32.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gouin E, Egile C, Dehoux P, et al. The RickA protein of Rickettsia conorii activates the Arp2/3 complex. Nature. 2004;427:457–61.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Crane S. Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Dao. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd 2013.
An edited book
Kaufer A, Kerber F, editors. The 2007 ESO Instrument Calibration Workshop: Proceedings of the ESO Workshop held in Garching, Germany, 23-26 January 2007. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Perez-Felkner L. Socialization in Childhood and Adolescence. In: DeLamater J, Ward A, eds. Handbook of Social Psychology. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands 2013:119–49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for In Practice.

Blog post
Fang J. Top Predators Limit Their Own Numbers. IFLScience. 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Commercial Fishing Vessel: Administration of the Colintino Rose II Loan Guarantee. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cappiello DM. Minding the gap: Western export controls and soviet technology policy during the 1960s. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. Athlete-Fan Dialogue Becomes Shouting Match. New York Times. 2011;SP9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIn Practice
AbbreviationIn Pract.
ISSN (print)0263-841X
ISSN (online)2042-7689
ScopeGeneral Veterinary

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