How to format your references using the In Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for In Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Greenberg DL. Comment on ‘Detecting awareness in the vegetative state’. Science 2007;315:1221; author reply 1221.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bellwood P, White P. Domesticated pigs in eastern Indonesia. Science 2005;309:381; author reply 381.
A journal article with 3 authors
Beal EJ, House CH, Orphan VJ. Manganese- and iron-dependent marine methane oxidation. Science 2009;325:184–7.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hammarlund M, Nix P, Hauth L, et al. Axon regeneration requires a conserved MAP kinase pathway. Science 2009;323:802–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Blair TH. Energy Production Systems Engineering. Hoboken, NJ: : John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2016.
An edited book
Slobounov S, Sebastianelli W, editors. Foundations of Sport-Related Brain Injuries. Boston, MA: : Springer US 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Worbs T, Förster R. T Cell Migration Dynamics Within Lymph Nodes During Steady State: An Overview of Extracellular and Intracellular Factors Influencing the Basal Intranodal T Cell Motility. In: Dustin M, McGavern D, eds. Visualizing Immunity. Berlin, Heidelberg: : Springer 2009. 71–105.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for In Practice.

Blog post
Hale T. Can You Spot The 1.8-Meter Snake Lurking In This Photo? IFLScience. 2017. (accessed 30 Oct 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. National Security: Papers Prepared for GAO Conference on Worldwide Threats. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Carrier TH. Using Grunig’s Situational Theory for Analysis of Frames in Human Trafficking Awareness Organizations’ YouTube Videos. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gregory Mankiw N. Advice for Trump: Ask an Economist. New York Times. 2017;:BU3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIn Practice
AbbreviationIn Pract.
ISSN (print)0263-841X
ISSN (online)2042-7689
ScopeGeneral Veterinary

Other styles