How to format your references using the In Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for In Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Loder N. UK labs impeded by old equipment. Nature 2000;405:496.
A journal article with 2 authors
Norton DA, Didham RK. Comment on ‘Why are there so many species of herbivorous insects in tropical rainforests?’ Science 2007;315:1666; author reply 1666.
A journal article with 3 authors
Raihani NJ, Grutter AS, Bshary R. Punishers benefit from third-party punishment in fish. Science 2010;327:171.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Puertollano R, Aguilar RC, Gorshkova I, et al. Sorting of mannose 6-phosphate receptors mediated by the GGAs. Science 2001;292:1712–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ramirez J. Accounting for Derivatives. Oxford, UK: : John Wiley & Sons Ltd 2007.
An edited book
Daniilidis K, Maragos P, Paragios N, editors. Computer Vision – ECCV 2010: 11th European Conference on Computer Vision, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, September 5-11, 2010, Proceedings, Part IV. Berlin, Heidelberg: : Springer 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Aranha DF, Karabina K, Longa P, et al. Faster Explicit Formulas for Computing Pairings over Ordinary Curves. In: Paterson KG, ed. Advances in Cryptology – EUROCRYPT 2011: 30th Annual International Conference on the Theory and Applications of Cryptographic Techniques, Tallinn, Estonia, May 15-19, 2011. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: : Springer 2011. 48–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for In Practice.

Blog post
Fang J. Baby Bats Learn Sounds by Mimicking their Moms. IFLScience. 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Transportation Security Administration: TSA Executive Attrition Has Declined, but Better Information Is Needed on Reasons for Leaving and Executive Hiring Process. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Harvey T. The Box. 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard B, Gordon MR. U.S. War Footprint Grows, With No Endgame in Sight. New York Times. 2017;:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIn Practice
AbbreviationIn Pract.
ISSN (print)0263-841X
ISSN (online)2042-7689
ScopeGeneral Veterinary

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