How to format your references using the In Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for In Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bettencourt LMA. The origins of scaling in cities. Science 2013;340:1438–41.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kennis JTM, Crosson S. Microbiology. A bacterial pathogen sees the light. Science 2007;317:1041–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Brunton BW, Botvinick MM, Brody CD. Rats and humans can optimally accumulate evidence for decision-making. Science 2013;340:95–8.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Srinivasan G, Whitehouse MJ, Weber I, et al. The crystallization age of eucrite zircon. Science 2007;317:345–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ruckmongathan TN. Addressing Techniques of Liquid Crystal Displays. Chichester, UK: : John Wiley & Sons, Ltd 2014.
An edited book
Fojo T, editor. The Role of Microtubules in Cell Biology, Neurobiology, and Oncology. Totowa, NJ: : Humana Press 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
El-Salhy M, Hatlebakk JG, Hausken T. Treatment Options Without Medication. In: Hatlebakk JG, Hausken T, eds. Understanding and Controlling the Irritable Bowel. Cham: : Springer International Publishing 2015. 45–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for In Practice.

Blog post
Andrews R. Mysterious Signal Above Antarctica Traced Back To Country-Sized Chunk Of Vibrating Ice. IFLScience. 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Routine Disclosure of Broadcaster Financial Records. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 1980.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Collins L. A community risk assessment of the 90062 zip code. 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin J. Request to Alter Opening Ceremony Collides With Tradition. New York Times. 2016;:B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIn Practice
AbbreviationIn Pract.
ISSN (print)0263-841X
ISSN (online)2042-7689
ScopeGeneral Veterinary

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