How to format your references using the Teaching Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Teaching Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hyman, S. E. (2008). A glimmer of light for neuropsychiatric disorders. Nature, 455(7215), 890–893.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wills-Karp, M., & Karp, C. L. (2004). Biomedicine. Eosinophils in asthma: remodeling a tangled tale. Science (New York, N.Y.), 305(5691), 1726–1729.
A journal article with 3 authors
Whittington, A. G., Hofmeister, A. M., & Nabelek, P. I. (2009). Temperature-dependent thermal diffusivity of the Earth’s crust and implications for magmatism. Nature, 458(7236), 319–321.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Ruz, J. J., Tamayo, J., Pini, V., Kosaka, P. M., & Calleja, M. (2014). Physics of nanomechanical spectrometry of viruses. Scientific Reports, 4, 6051.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Walker, C., & Fincham, B. (2011). Work and the Mental Health Crisis in Britain. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Zhang, L.-J., Paul, R., & Dong, J. (Eds.). (2009). High Assurance Services Computing. Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Chahlaoui, Y., & Van Dooren, P. (2005). Model Reduction of Time-Varying Systems. In P. Benner, D. C. Sorensen, & V. Mehrmann (Eds.), Dimension Reduction of Large-Scale Systems: Proceedings of a Workshop held in Oberwolfach, Germany, October 19–25, 2003 (pp. 131–148). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Teaching Education.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, September 10). Companion Star Hidden for 21 Years in Supernova’s Glow. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1986). The Job Training Partnership Act Performance Standards and Information Systems (129345). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Peters, B. (2010). From Cybernetics to Cyber Networks: Norbert Wiener, the Soviet Internet, and the Cold War Dawn of Information Universalism [Doctoral dissertation]. Columbia University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vlasic, B., & Chapman, M. M. (2015, November 22). Union Vote at Ford and G.M. Ends Painful Process for Big Three. New York Times, A24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hyman, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Hyman, 2008; Wills-Karp & Karp, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wills-Karp & Karp, 2004)
  • Three authors: (Whittington et al., 2009)
  • 6 or more authors: (Ruz et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleTeaching Education
AbbreviationTeach. Educ.
ISSN (print)1047-6210
ISSN (online)1470-1286

Other styles