How to format your references using the Teaching Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Teaching Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mortlock, D. (2014). Astronomy: The age of the quasars. Nature, 514(7520), 43–44.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gardner, A., & West, S. A. (2004). Ecology. Spite among siblings. Science (New York, N.Y.), 305(5689), 1413–1414.
A journal article with 3 authors
James, A., Pitchford, J. W., & Plank, M. J. (2012). Disentangling nestedness from models of ecological complexity. Nature, 487(7406), 227–230.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Beyaz, S., Mana, M. D., Roper, J., Kedrin, D., Saadatpour, A., Hong, S.-J., Bauer-Rowe, K. E., Xifaras, M. E., Akkad, A., Arias, E., Pinello, L., Katz, Y., Shinagare, S., Abu-Remaileh, M., Mihaylova, M. M., Lamming, D. W., Dogum, R., Guo, G., Bell, G. W., … Yilmaz, Ö. H. (2018). Author Correction: High-fat diet enhances stemness and tumorigenicity of intestinal progenitors. Nature, 560(7717), E26.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Li, W. (2004). Risk Assessment of Power Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Lerche, I. (2006). Environmental Risk Assessment: Quantitative Measures, Anthropogenic Influences, Human Impact (W. Glaesser, Ed.). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Proto, M., Malandrino, O., & Supino, S. (2013). The Implementation of Integrated Management System in Agri-Food SMEs. In R. Salomone, M. T. Clasadonte, M. Proto, & A. Raggi (Eds.), Product-Oriented Environmental Management Systems (POEMS): Improving Sustainability and Competitiveness in the Agri-Food Chain with Innovative Environmental Management Tools (pp. 89–101). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Teaching Education.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, May 15). There’s Some Really Gross Stuff In A Lot Of Burgers. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2011). Motor Carrier Safety: FMCSA Has Devoted a Small but Increasing Amount of Resources to Develop the Compliance, Safety, Accountability Program but Is Requesting a Significant Increase for Full Implementation (GAO-11-416R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Truong, T. (2012). Microfluidics-based system for high-throughput analysis of nitrite in harbor water [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W. (2016, January 24). Failed Talks Raise Specter of Biggest Default in Puerto Rico Crisis. New York Times, A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mortlock, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Gardner & West, 2004; Mortlock, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gardner & West, 2004)
  • Three authors: (James et al., 2012)
  • 6 or more authors: (Beyaz et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleTeaching Education
AbbreviationTeach. Educ.
ISSN (print)1047-6210
ISSN (online)1470-1286

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