How to format your references using the Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Xie T. 2008. Physiology. Burn fat, live longer. Science. 322(5903):865–866.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chen M, Yan X. 2005. Comment on “Grain boundary-mediated plasticity in nanocrystalline nickel.” Science. 308(5720):356; author reply 356.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ramu Y, Xu Y, Lu Z. 2006. Enzymatic activation of voltage-gated potassium channels. Nature. 442(7103):696–699.
A journal article with 12 or more authors
Bibby TS, Mary I, Nield J, Partensky F, Barber J. 2003. Low-light-adapted Prochlorococcus species possess specific antennae for each photosystem. Nature. 424(6952):1051–1054.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ledolter J. 2013. Data Mining and Business Analytics with R. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Chichilnisky G, Rezai A, editors. 2016. The Economics of the Global Environment: Catastrophic Risks in Theory and Policy. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Clay SM, Fong SS. 2013. Synthetic Biology. In: Fong SS, editor. Developing Biofuel Bioprocesses Using Systems and Synthetic Biology. New York, NY: Springer; p. 37–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal.

Blog post
Fang J. 2015. Ants Designate Space in Their Nests for Tiny Toilets. IFLScience [Internet]. [accessed 2018 Oct 30].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1997. Weather Service Modernization: Risks Remain That Full Systems Potential Will Not be Achieved. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Snyder QZ. 2010. From anarchy to confederacy: A theory of international politics [Doctoral dissertation]. College Park, MD: University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dash E. 2011. Standard & Poor’s Lowers More Ratings. New York Times.:B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Xie 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Chen & Yan 2005; Xie 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chen & Yan 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Bibby et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleImpact Assessment and Project Appraisal
AbbreviationImpact Assess. Proj. Apprais.
ISSN (print)1461-5517
ISSN (online)1471-5465
ScopeManagement, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles