How to format your references using the Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wang LL. 2001. Obituary. Wang Ying-lai (1907-2001). Nature. 412(6842):38.
A journal article with 2 authors
Andreasen R, Sharma M. 2006. Solar nebula heterogeneity in p-process samarium and neodymium isotopes. Science. 314(5800):806–809.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wara MW, Ravelo AC, Delaney ML. 2005. Permanent El Niño-like conditions during the Pliocene warm period. Science. 309(5735):758–761.
A journal article with 12 or more authors
Schmidt M, Kahlert U, Wessolleck J, Maciaczyk D, Merkt B, Maciaczyk J, Osterholz J, Nikkhah G, Steinhauser MO. 2014. Characterization of a setup to test the impact of high-amplitude pressure waves on living cells. Sci Rep. 4:3849.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stefanoiu D, Borne P, Popescu D, Filip FG, El Kamel A. 2014. Optimization in Engineering Sciences: Approximate and Metaheuristic Methods. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Navard P, editor. 2013. The European Polysaccharide Network of Excellence (EPNOE): Research Initiatives and Results. Vienna: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Chenlo JM, Parapar J, Losada DE. 2013. Comments-Oriented Query Expansion for Opinion Retrieval in Blogs. In: Bielza C, Salmerón A, Alonso-Betanzos A, Hidalgo JI, Martínez L, Troncoso A, Corchado E, Corchado JM, editors. Advances in Artificial Intelligence: 15th Conference of the Spanish Association for Artificial Intelligence, CAEPIA 2013, Madrid, Spain, September 17-20, 2013 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; p. 32–41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2015. Concrete Jungle: Cities Adapt to Growing Ranks of Coyotes, Cougars and Other Urban Wildlife. IFLScience [Internet]. [accessed 2018 Oct 30].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1998. Aviation Safety: Weaknesses in Inspection and Enforcement Limit FAA in Identifying and Responding to Risks. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mueller K. 2017. Biases in the Selection Process Against Applicants with Tattoos [Doctoral dissertation]. Edwardsville, IL: Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron J. 2017. In East Hampton, an Airport Is Viewed as a Roaring, Round-the-Clock Nuisance. New York Times.:A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wang 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Wang 2001; Andreasen and Sharma 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Andreasen and Sharma 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Schmidt et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleImpact Assessment and Project Appraisal
AbbreviationImpact Assess. Proj. Apprais.
ISSN (print)1461-5517
ISSN (online)1471-5465
ScopeManagement, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles