How to format your references using the Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kasevich MA. 2002. Coherence with atoms. Science. 298:1363–1368.
A journal article with 2 authors
Campbell P, Grayson M. 2014. Assessing science. Nature. 511:S49.
A journal article with 3 authors
den Boer SPA, Baer B, Boomsma JJ. 2010. Seminal fluid mediates ejaculate competition in social insects. Science. 327:1506–1509.
A journal article with 12 or more authors
Seidemann E, Arieli A, Grinvald A, Slovin H. 2002. Dynamics of depolarization and hyperpolarization in the frontal cortex and saccade goal. Science. 295:862–865.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Haupt RL. 2015. Timed Arrays. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Syka J, Merzenich MM, editors. 2005. Plasticity and Signal Representation in the Auditory System. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Clark E, Pompa JL. 2009. Women and Traumatic Brain Injury. In: Fletcher-Janzen E, editor. The Neuropsychology of Women. New York, NY: Springer; p. 1–18.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2014. NASA Tests 3D Printed Rocket Parts. IFLScience [Internet]. [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1994. Space Station: Update on the Impact of the Expanded Russian Role. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Navarro C. 2012. Advocacy services for high-risk Latino families caring for children with autism: A grant proposal [Doctoral dissertation]. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodgman J. 2016. Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman. New York Times.:MM18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kasevich 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Kasevich 2002; Campbell & Grayson 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Campbell & Grayson 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Seidemann et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleImpact Assessment and Project Appraisal
AbbreviationImpact Assess. Proj. Apprais.
ISSN (print)1461-5517
ISSN (online)1471-5465
ScopeManagement, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles