How to format your references using the Clinical and Experimental Optometry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical and Experimental Optometry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P. To plan...or not to plan? Nature. 2005 May 19;435(7040):381.
A journal article with 2 authors
Blatt R, Wineland D. Entangled states of trapped atomic ions. Nature. 2008 Jun 19;453(7198):1008–15.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cossairt BM, Diawara M-C, Cummins CC. Facile synthesis of AsP3. Science. 2009 Jan 30;323(5914):602.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Peeters FJC, Acheson R, Brummer G-JA, De Ruijter WPM, Schneider RR, Ganssen GM, et al. Vigorous exchange between the Indian and Atlantic oceans at the end of the past five glacial periods. Nature. 2004 Aug 5;430(7000):661–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Villarroel A. Practical Clinical Epidemiology for the Veterinarian. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Clauss-Ehlers CS, Serpell ZN, Weist MD, editors. Handbook of Culturally Responsive School Mental Health: Advancing Research, Training, Practice, and Policy. New York, NY: Springer; 2013. XXII, 268 p. 1 illus.
A chapter in an edited book
Sirenko YK, Ström S. Finite Scale Homogenization of Periodic Bianisotropic Structures. In: Sirenko YK, Ström S, editors. Modern Theory of Gratings: Resonant Scattering: Analysis Techniques and Phenomena. New York, NY: Springer; 2010. p. 335–65. (Springer Series in Optical Sciences).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical and Experimental Optometry.

Blog post
Taub B. Study Shows Dogs Have Episodic Memory, Just Like Humans [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Security: FAA’s Actions to Study Responsibilities and Funding for Airport Security and to Certify Screening Companies. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999 Feb. Report No.: RCED-99-53.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shelby KR. Systems Engineering Knowledge Asset (SEKA) Management for Higher Performing Engineering Teams: People, Process and Technology toward Effective Knowledge-Workers [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly S. The Canadiens; and Soul Hockey No Politics on Ice Flyers a Different Breed. New York Times. 1978 Apr 9;SportsS2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical and Experimental Optometry
AbbreviationClin. Exp. Optom.
ISSN (print)0816-4622
ISSN (online)1444-0938

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