How to format your references using the Clinical and Experimental Optometry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical and Experimental Optometry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P. Beyond the helix. Nature. 2003 Apr 24;422(6934):927.
A journal article with 2 authors
Krupalnik V, Hanna JH. Stem cells: The quest for the perfect reprogrammed cell. Nature. 2014 Jul 10;511(7508):160–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Aubert J, Finlay CC, Fournier A. Bottom-up control of geomagnetic secular variation by the Earth’s inner core. Nature. 2013 Oct 10;502(7470):219–23.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Coates JD, Chakraborty R, Lack JG, O’Connor SM, Cole KA, Bender KS, et al. Anaerobic benzene oxidation coupled to nitrate reduction in pure culture by two strains of Dechloromonas. Nature. 2001 Jun 28;411(6841):1039–43.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Meghouar H. Corporate Takeover Targets. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Aggarwal BB, Surh YJ, Shishodia S, editors. The Molecular Targets and Therapeutic Uses of Curcumin in Health and Disease. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2007. XXII, 490 p. 75 illus., 3 illus. in color. (ADVANCES IN EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY; vol. 595).
A chapter in an edited book
Domingos P, Kok S, Lowd D, Poon H, Richardson M, Singla P. Markov Logic. In: Raedt LD, Frasconi P, Kersting K, Muggleton S, editors. Probabilistic Inductive Logic Programming: Theory and Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. p. 92–117. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical and Experimental Optometry.

Blog post
Taub B. Addictions Can Be Detected In The Brain Even After Death. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: State Department Needs To Make Fundamental Improvements To Its Year 2000 Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998 Aug. Report No.: AIMD-98-162.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wilson ML. The Power of Spoken Word: Oral History As Social Work Pedagogy [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard B, Gordon MR. U.S. War Footprint Grows, With No Endgame in Sight. New York Times. 2017 Mar 30;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical and Experimental Optometry
AbbreviationClin. Exp. Optom.
ISSN (print)0816-4622
ISSN (online)1444-0938

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