How to format your references using the Clinical and Experimental Optometry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical and Experimental Optometry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ziff RM. Mathematics. Getting the jump on explosive percolation. Science. 2013 Mar 8;339(6124):1159–60.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gerstner W, Naud R. Neuroscience. How good are neuron models? Science. 2009 Oct 16;326(5951):379–80.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rogers RR, Krause DW, Curry Rogers K. Cannibalism in the Madagascan dinosaur Majungatholus atopus. Nature. 2003 Apr 3;422(6931):515–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Visscher PM, Smith D, Hall SJ, Williams JL, Williams JA. A viable herd of genetically uniform cattle. Nature. 2001 Jan 18;409(6818):303.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kobilinsky L, Liotti TF, Oeser-Sweat J. DNA: Forensic and Legal Applications. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2004.
An edited book
Hsu S, Wu Y-Y, editors. Education as Cultivation in Chinese Culture. Singapore: Springer; 2015. VIII, 288 p. 20 illus. (Education in the Asia-Pacific Region: Issues, Concerns and Prospects; vol. 26).
A chapter in an edited book
Naghdi M, Taheran M, Sarma SJ, Brar SK, Ramirez AA, Verma M. Nanotechnology to Remove Contaminants. In: Ranjan S, Dasgupta N, Lichtfouse E, editors. Nanoscience in Food and Agriculture 1. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 101–28. (Sustainable Agriculture Reviews).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical and Experimental Optometry.

Blog post
Taub B. Physical Inactivity Is Just As Bad As Genetic Predisposition When It Comes To Developing Dementia [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Opportunity To Reduce Costs Substantially In Acquiring Teletypewriters For Use In The Advanced Record System Communications Network. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1968 Sep. Report No.: B-162104.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brown O. Business and IT leaders’ behavioral affects on alignment and project outcome: A comparative leadership study [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy MJO. Two Momentous Occasions in New York History. New York Times. 2016 Apr 29;C30.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical and Experimental Optometry
AbbreviationClin. Exp. Optom.
ISSN (print)0816-4622
ISSN (online)1444-0938

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