How to format your references using the Clinical and Experimental Optometry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical and Experimental Optometry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Peters SE. Environmental determinants of extinction selectivity in the fossil record. Nature. 2008 Jul 31;454(7204):626–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Deplancke B, Verstrepen KJ. Genetics. Variable outcome of mutations. Science. 2012 Jan 6;335(6064):44–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Moynier F, Yin Q-Z, Schauble E. Isotopic evidence of Cr partitioning into Earth’s core. Science. 2011 Mar 18;331(6023):1417–20.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Venken KJT, He Y, Hoskins RA, Bellen HJ. P[acman]: a BAC transgenic platform for targeted insertion of large DNA fragments in D. melanogaster. Science. 2006 Dec 15;314(5806):1747–51.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Jawlik AA. Statistics from A to Z: Confusing Concepts Clarified. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
1.
Yehuda S, Mostofsky DI, editors. Iron Deficiency and Overload: From Basic Biology to Clinical Medicine. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2010. XVI, 376 p. 54 illus., 7 illus. in color. (Nutrition and Health).
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Gao L, Yu S, Luan TH, Zhou W. Data Dissemination in Delay Tolerant Networks with Geographic Information. In: Yu S, Luan TH, Zhou W, editors. Delay Tolerant Networks. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 53–67. (SpringerBriefs in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical and Experimental Optometry.

Blog post
1.
Hale T. Australian Teens Catch “Sharknado” Moment On Camera [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/australian-teens-catch-sharknado-moment-on-camera/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. A Capsule Version of: Nanomanufacturing--Emergence and Implications for U.S. Competitiveness, the Environment, and Human Health. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014 May. Report No.: GAO-14-406SP.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Nguyen D. Deus-ex-machina: A modern skeptic’s relentless scrutiny of the production of ethics in post-colonial literature and postcolonialism [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Brantley B. The Image Is Fixed, but Our Lives Are in Flux. New York Times. 2016 Mar 24;C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical and Experimental Optometry
AbbreviationClin. Exp. Optom.
ISSN (print)0816-4622
ISSN (online)1444-0938
ScopeOphthalmology
Optometry

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