How to format your references using the Clinical and Experimental Optometry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical and Experimental Optometry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ernst T. Engineering. Controlling the polarity of silicon nanowire transistors. Science. 2013 Jun 21;340(6139):1414–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Guy-Grand D, Vassalli P. Immunology. Tracing an orphan’s genealogy. Science. 2004 Jul 9;305(5681):185–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen SH, Chen WR, Mallamace F. The glass-to-glass transition and its end point in a copolymer micellar system. Science. 2003 Apr 25;300(5619):619–22.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Brennecke J, Malone CD, Aravin AA, Sachidanandam R, Stark A, Hannon GJ. An epigenetic role for maternally inherited piRNAs in transposon silencing. Science. 2008 Nov 28;322(5906):1387–92.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rahman ROA, Rakhimov RZ, Rakhimova NR, Ojovan MI. Cementitious Materials for Nuclear Waste Immobilization. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Zhou J, editor. Complex Sciences: First International Conference, Complex 2009, Shanghai, China, February 23-25, 2009, Revised Papers, Part 2. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. LXIV, 1237 p. (Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering; vol. 5).
A chapter in an edited book
Markner-Jäger B. Geoengineering. In: Markner-Jäger B, editor. Technical English for Geosciences. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. p. 13–8.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical and Experimental Optometry.

Blog post
Davis J. Researchers Create Regenerative Tooth Fillings [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Radioactive Sources: Opportunities Exist for Federal Agencies to Strengthen Transportation Security. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2017 Feb. Report No.: GAO-17-58.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zhang H. Studies of Zeolite-Based Artificial Photosynthetic Systems [Doctoral dissertation]. [Columbus, OH]: Ohio State University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
LaFRANIERE S, Palmer E. In 130 of Worst Shootings, Vision of Porous Gun Laws. New York Times. 2016 Oct 21;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical and Experimental Optometry
AbbreviationClin. Exp. Optom.
ISSN (print)0816-4622
ISSN (online)1444-0938

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