How to format your references using the Immunotherapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Immunotherapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rahmstorf S. Thermohaline circulation: The current climate. Nature. 421(6924), 699 (2003).
A journal article with 2 authors
Younesi E, Hofmann-Apitius M. Biomarker-guided translation of brain imaging into disease pathway models. Sci. Rep. 3, 3375 (2013).
A journal article with 3 authors
McKinney JC, Tchekhovskoy A, Blandford RD. Alignment of magnetized accretion disks and relativistic jets with spinning black holes. Science. 339(6115), 49–52 (2013).
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Enquist BJ, Allen AP, Brown JH, et al. Biological scaling: does the exception prove the rule? Nature. 445(7127), E9-10; discussion E10-1 (2007).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kumar V, Petersen JA. Statistical Methods in Customer Relationship Management. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Alberts D, Hess LM, editors. Fundamentals of Cancer Prevention. 3rd ed. 2014. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Lewis ME, Werdelin L. Patterns of change in the Plio-Pleistocene carnivorans of eastern Africa. In: Hominin Environments in the East African Pliocene: An Assessment of the Faunal Evidence. Bobe R, Alemseged Z, Behrensmeyer AK (Eds.), Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 77–105 (2007).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Immunotherapy.

Blog post
Andrews R. Submerged Greek “Lost City” Was Actually Sculpted By Microbial Life [Internet]. IFLScience (2011). Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Catalog Program: Progress and Problems in Attaining a Uniform Identification System for Supplies. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lord V. Defining eating disorder recovery: A qualitative approach. (2015).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED MJ. Ex-Google Venture Capitalist Is Opening Fund of His Own. New York Times, B4 (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleImmunotherapy
ISSN (print)1750-743X
ISSN (online)1750-7448
Immunology and Allergy

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