How to format your references using the Journal of Academic Ethics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Academic Ethics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
de Kroon, H. (2007). Ecology. How do roots interact? Science (New York, N.Y.), 318(5856), 1562–1563.
A journal article with 2 authors
Desai, S. A., & Miller, L. H. (2014). Malaria: Protein-export pathway illuminated. Nature, 511(7511), 541–542.
A journal article with 3 authors
Morran, L. T., Parmenter, M. D., & Phillips, P. C. (2009). Mutation load and rapid adaptation favour outcrossing over self-fertilization. Nature, 462(7271), 350–352.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Koglin, A., Mofid, M. R., Löhr, F., Schäfer, B., Rogov, V. V., Blum, M.-M., et al. (2006). Conformational switches modulate protein interactions in peptide antibiotic synthetases. Science (New York, N.Y.), 312(5771), 273–276.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Levitin, V. (2005). High Temperature Strain of Metals and Alloys. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Mohammad, A. (Ed.). (2012). Green Solvents I: Properties and Applications in Chemistry. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Baartse, M., & Meer, K. (2015). An Algebraic Proof of the Real Number PCP Theorem. In G. F. Italiano, G. Pighizzini, & D. T. Sannella (Eds.), Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science 2015: 40th International Symposium, MFCS 2015, Milan, Italy, August 24-28, 2015, Proceedings, Part II (pp. 50–61). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Academic Ethics.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2016, September 13). Why Are Vaccination Rates In England Falling? IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1990). U.S.-Korea Fighter Coproduction Program (No. T-NSIAD-90-29). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chatterji, S. (2016). A novel agent-based dynamic load balancing model for cloud networks (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gorman, J. (2016, August 29). Sciencetake: An Effort to Put a Blue, Whirling Vortex of Fire to Good Use. New York Times, p. D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (de Kroon 2007).
This sentence cites two references (de Kroon 2007; Desai and Miller 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Desai and Miller 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Koglin et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Academic Ethics
AbbreviationJ. Acad. Ethics
ISSN (print)1570-1727
ISSN (online)1572-8544
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Sociology and Political Science

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