How to format your references using the Journal of Academic Ethics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Academic Ethics (J Acad Ethics). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baker, M. (2011). Genomics: Genomes in three dimensions. Nature, 470(7333), 289–294.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ashworth, A. C., & Thompson, F. C. (2003). Palaeontology: A fly in the biogeographic ointment. Nature, 423(6936), 135–136.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pfeifer, R., Lungarella, M., & Iida, F. (2007). Self-organization, embodiment, and biologically inspired robotics. Science (New York, N.Y.), 318(5853), 1088–1093.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Raya, A., Kawakami, Y., Rodríguez-Esteban, C., Ibañes, M., Rasskin-Gutman, D., Rodríguez-León, J., et al. (2004). Notch activity acts as a sensor for extracellular calcium during vertebrate left-right determination. Nature, 427(6970), 121–128.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Uriev, N. B. (2016). Technology of Dispersed Systems and Materials. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Xu, W., Xiao, L., Li, J., Zhang, C., & Zhu, Z. (Eds.). (2016). Computer Engineering and Technology: 20th CCF Conference, NCCET 2016, Xi’an, China, August 10-12, 2016, Revised Selected Papers (Vol. 666). Singapore: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Warrier, S. B., & Kharkar, P. S. (2016). Inverse Virtual Screening in Drug Repositioning: Detailed Investigation and Case Studies. In P. Ramasami, M. Gupta Bhowon, S. Jhaumeer Laulloo, & H. Li Kam Wah (Eds.), Crystallizing Ideas – The Role of Chemistry (pp. 71–83). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Academic Ethics.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014, September 2). Our Solar System Is Surrounded by Supernovae Debris. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2008). Social Security Administration Field Offices: Reduced Workforce Faces Challenges as Baby Boomers Retire (No. GAO-08-737T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bombard, B. (2012). Literature circles book club for science and language arts (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Seelye, K. Q., Blinder, A., & Bidgood, J. (2017, August 19). Counterprotesters Surge Into Boston, Overshadowing a Planned Rally. New York Times, p. A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Franklin 2015).
This sentence cites two references (McGloin 2014; von Heijne 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ashworth and Thompson 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Paterson et al. 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Academic Ethics
AbbreviationJ. Acad. Ethics
ISSN (print)1570-1727
ISSN (online)1572-8544
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Sociology and Political Science

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