How to format your references using the Journal of Academic Ethics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Academic Ethics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gregory, R. (2000). Reversing Rorschach. Nature, 404(6773), 19.
A journal article with 2 authors
James, J. R., & Vale, R. D. (2012). Biophysical mechanism of T-cell receptor triggering in a reconstituted system. Nature, 487(7405), 64–69.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sousa, T., Marques, G. M., & Domingos, T. (2009). Comment on “Energy uptake and allocation during ontogeny.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 325(5945), 1206; author reply 1206.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Altman, M. O., Chang, Y. M., Xiong, X., & Tan, W. (2013). Modifying cellular properties using artificial aptamer-lipid receptors. Scientific reports, 3, 3343.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ambachtsheer, K. P. (2016). The Future of Pension Management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Grandfield, J. (Ed.). (2016). Light Metals 2014. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Ćirković Veličković, T., & Gavrović-Jankulović, M. (2014). Methods for Allergen Identification and Quantification in Food Matrices. In M. Gavrović-Jankulović (Ed.), Food Allergens: Biochemistry and Molecular Nutrition (pp. 77–93). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Academic Ethics.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, August 31). Here’s Why You Should Be Sleeping Naked. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1984). Secondary Market Activities of the Student Loan Marketing Association (No. HRD-84-51). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shirley, A. (2012). Connecting foster children with their siblings within a summer camp setting: A grant proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2008, January 15). Case on Police Searches Pits State Laws Against Federal. New York Times, p. A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gregory 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Gregory 2000; James and Vale 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (James and Vale 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Altman et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Academic Ethics
AbbreviationJ. Acad. Ethics
ISSN (print)1570-1727
ISSN (online)1572-8544
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Sociology and Political Science

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