How to format your references using the Journal of Academic Ethics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Academic Ethics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Glikson, A. (2004). Comment on “Bedout: a possible end-Permian impact crater offshore of Northwestern Australia.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 306(5696), 613; author reply 613.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jetz, W., & Rahbek, C. (2002). Geographic range size and determinants of avian species richness. Science (New York, N.Y.), 297(5586), 1548–1551.
A journal article with 3 authors
Houlié, N., Dreger, D., & Kim, A. (2014). GPS source solution of the 2004 Parkfield earthquake. Scientific reports, 4, 3646.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Khorasaninejad, M., Raeis-Zadeh, S. M., Jafarlou, S., Wesolowski, M. J., Daley, C. R., Flannery, J. B., et al. (2013). Highly enhanced Raman scattering of graphene using plasmonic nano-structure. Scientific reports, 3, 2936.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wen, S., & Huang, P. (2011). Principles of Tribology. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd.
An edited book
Steinmetz, R., & Wehrle, K. (Eds.). (2005). Peer-to-Peer Systems and Applications (Vol. 3485). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Caragiannis, I., Filos-Ratsikas, A., & Procaccia, A. D. (2011). An Improved 2-Agent Kidney Exchange Mechanism. In N. Chen, E. Elkind, & E. Koutsoupias (Eds.), Internet and Network Economics: 7th International Workshop, WINE 2011, Singapore, December 11-14, 2011. Proceedings (pp. 37–48). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Academic Ethics.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2016, May 15). Listen To The Eerie Music From The First “Underwater Band.” IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1974). Need To Revise Office of Saline Water’s Restrictive Patent Policy (No. 093122). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Delisio, J. P. (2017). Fighting For A Cure: The Berry Plan’s Impact on Civilian Medical Research (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G. G. (2017, April 7). Don’t Blame These Heroes for Slumping Sales. New York Times, p. C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Glikson 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Glikson 2004; Jetz and Rahbek 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jetz and Rahbek 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Khorasaninejad et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Academic Ethics
AbbreviationJ. Acad. Ethics
ISSN (print)1570-1727
ISSN (online)1572-8544
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Sociology and Political Science

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