How to format your references using the Journal of Academic Ethics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Academic Ethics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mervis, J. (2015). Funding. NIH program fails to launch blacks in biotech. Science (New York, N.Y.), 350(6263), 896.
A journal article with 2 authors
Panstruga, R., & Dodds, P. N. (2009). Terrific protein traffic: the mystery of effector protein delivery by filamentous plant pathogens. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5928), 748–750.
A journal article with 3 authors
Grenier, I. A., Casandjian, J.-M., & Terrier, R. (2005). Unveiling extensive clouds of dark gas in the solar neighborhood. Science (New York, N.Y.), 307(5713), 1292–1295.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Eisenberg, D., Marcotte, E. M., Xenarios, I., & Yeates, T. O. (2000). Protein function in the post-genomic era. Nature, 405(6788), 823–826.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Collings, S. (2015). Interpretation and Application of UK GAAP. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Mattei, P. (Ed.). (2011). Fundamentals of Pediatric Surgery. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhou, Y., & Evans, D. (2011). Protecting Private Web Content from Embedded Scripts. In V. Atluri & C. Diaz (Eds.), Computer Security – ESORICS 2011: 16th European Symposium on Research in Computer Security, Leuven, Belgium, September 12-14,2011. Proceedings (pp. 60–79). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Academic Ethics.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, March 3). We Must Defend Science If We Want A Prosperous Future. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1996). Federal Research: Changes in Electricity-Related R&D Funding (No. RCED-96-203). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tetley, J. (2009). An investigation of self-authorship, hope, and meaning in life among second-year college students (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Fitzsimmons, E. G., & Buettner, R. (2015, February 5). Rail Crossing Accidents Decline Nationwide, but Less So in New York Region. New York Times, p. A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mervis 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Mervis 2015; Panstruga and Dodds 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Panstruga and Dodds 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Eisenberg et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Academic Ethics
AbbreviationJ. Acad. Ethics
ISSN (print)1570-1727
ISSN (online)1572-8544
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Sociology and Political Science

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