How to format your references using the Immunology Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Immunology Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. Yamaguchi, Sex differences in vocal learning in birds, Nature. 411 (2001) 257–258.
A journal article with 2 authors
I.A. Bonnell, W.K.M. Rice, Star formation around supermassive black holes, Science. 321 (2008) 1060–1062.
A journal article with 3 authors
K. Visser, R. Thunell, L. Stott, Magnitude and timing of temperature change in the Indo-Pacific warm pool during deglaciation, Nature. 421 (2003) 152–155.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
X. Chen, K. Sun, S. Jiao, N. Cai, X. Zhao, H. Zou, Y. Xie, Z. Wang, M. Zhong, L. Wei, High levels of SIRT1 expression enhance tumorigenesis and associate with a poor prognosis of colorectal carcinoma patients, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 7481.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J.C. Alacoque, Direct Eigen Control for Induction Machines and Synchronous Motors, A John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2012.
An edited book
Z.A. Siddiqui, M.S. Akhtar, K. Futai, eds., Mycorrhizae: Sustainable Agriculture and Forestry, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
A. Herzig, T. de Lima, E. Lorini, N. Troquard, Three Traditions in the Logic of Action: Bringing them Together, in: R. Trypuz (Ed.), Krister Segerberg on Logic of Actions, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2014: pp. 61–84.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Immunology Letters.

Blog post
J. O`Callaghan, You Can Watch Wild Orcas In Action Thanks To These New Live Cameras, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: Temporary Emergency Impact Aid Provided Education Support for Displaced Students, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M. Robertson-Tessi, Mathematical models of tumor growth and therapy, Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Kolomatsky, Career Over, Where to Move?, New York Times. (2017) RE2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleImmunology Letters
AbbreviationImmunol. Lett.
ISSN (print)0165-2478
Immunology and Allergy

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