How to format your references using the Immunology Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Immunology Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J.V. Narlikar, Venture funding for new ideas, Nature. 404 (2000) 707.
A journal article with 2 authors
A.B. Singleton, B.J. Traynor, Genetics. For complex disease genetics, collaboration drives progress, Science. 347 (2015) 1422–1423.
A journal article with 3 authors
K. Xu, P. Cao, J.R. Heath, Graphene visualizes the first water adlayers on mica at ambient conditions, Science. 329 (2010) 1188–1191.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
G. Bejerano, C.B. Lowe, N. Ahituv, B. King, A. Siepel, S.R. Salama, E.M. Rubin, W.J. Kent, D. Haussler, A distal enhancer and an ultraconserved exon are derived from a novel retroposon, Nature. 441 (2006) 87–90.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
W. Matthys, J.E. Lochman, Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder in Childhood, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2016.
An edited book
D. Liu, H. Zhang, M. Polycarpou, C. Alippi, H. He, eds., Advances in Neural Networks – ISNN 2011: 8th International Symposium on Neural Networks, ISNN 2011, Guilin, China, May 29–June 1, 2011, Proceedings, Part I, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
T. Budisantoso, A. Bhati, A. Bradshaw, C.M. Tang, Hedonic Shopping Motivation: Does It Really Matter?, in: P. Mandal, J. Vong (Eds.), Development of Tourism and the Hospitality Industry in Southeast Asia, Springer, Singapore, 2016: pp. 51–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Immunology Letters.

Blog post
T. Hale, The Color Of This Handbag Has Divided The Internet, Once Again, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Air Force Contracting: Contracting for Maintenance of Training Aircraft at Columbus Air Force Base, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R.M. Amin, Detecting targeted malicious email through supervised classification of persistent threat and recipient oriented features, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.W. Walsh, New Ideas On Pensions: Use States, New York Times. (2012) B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleImmunology Letters
AbbreviationImmunol. Lett.
ISSN (print)0165-2478
Immunology and Allergy

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