How to format your references using the Immunology Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Immunology Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Moore, Stealth ship sets sail for a quiet life fishing for data, Nature. 423 (2003) 7.
A journal article with 2 authors
D. Ortíz-Barrientos, M.A.F. Noor, Evidence for a one-allele assortative mating locus, Science. 310 (2005) 1467.
A journal article with 3 authors
P. Sessa, F. Meconi, S. Han, Double dissociation of neural responses supporting perceptual and cognitive components of social cognition: evidence from processing of others’ pain, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 7424.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
F. Costard, F. Forget, N. Mangold, J.P. Peulvast, Formation of recent martian debris flows by melting of near-surface ground ice at high obliquity, Science. 295 (2002) 110–113.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
T.F. DeRosa, Advances in Polymer Chemistry and Methods Reported in Recent US Patents, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2008.
An edited book
P.C. Cacciabue, ed., Modelling Driver Behaviour in Automotive Environments: Critical Issues in Driver Interactions with Intelligent Transport Systems, Springer, London, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
P.E. Zalba, M.E. Morosi, M.S. Conconi, Olavarría County, in: M.E. Morosi, M.S. Conconi (Eds.), Gondwana Industrial Clays: Tandilia System, Argentina-Geology and Applications, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 107–131.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Immunology Letters.

Blog post
J. Fang, Early Humans Could Have Been Using Tools 500,000 Years Earlier Than We Thought, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Financial Management Systems: DHS Has an Opportunity to Incorporate Best Practices in Modernization Efforts, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
E.A. Bubert, Highly extensible skin for a variable wing-span morphing aircraft utilizing pneumatic artificial muscle actuation, Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Kelly, Where Mu sic: Will Be Coming From, New York Times. (2002) 629.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleImmunology Letters
AbbreviationImmunol. Lett.
ISSN (print)0165-2478
Immunology and Allergy

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