How to format your references using the Oncology and Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Oncology and Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Destexhe A. Neuroscience. Dendrites do it in sequences. Science. 2010;329:1611–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Lloyd-Jones GC, Ball LT. Catalysis. Self-control tames the coupling of reactive radicals. Science. 2014;345:381–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Provenzano V, Shapiro AJ, Shull RD. Reduction of hysteresis losses in the magnetic refrigerant Gd5Ge2Si2 by the addition of iron. Nature. 2004;429:853–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Billas IML, Iwema T, Garnier J-M, Mitschler A, Rochel N, Moras D. Structural adaptability in the ligand-binding pocket of the ecdysone hormone receptor. Nature. 2003;426:91–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Eichhorn MP. Natural Systems. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
1. Pointcheval D, Vergnaud D, editors. Progress in Cryptology – AFRICACRYPT 2014: 7th International Conference on Cryptology in Africa, Marrakesh, Morocco, May 28-30, 2014. Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Tittel FK, Bakhirkin YA, Curl RF, Kosterev AA, McCurdy MR, So SG, et al. Laser Based Chemical Sensor Technology: Recent Advances and Applications. In: Kim YJ, Platt U, editors. Advanced Environmental Monitoring. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2008. p. 50–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Oncology and Therapy.

Blog post
1. Andrews R. Science Says You Should Really Stop Sticking Things Into Your Ears [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Intelligent Transportation Systems: Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Technologies Expected to Offer Benefits, but Deployment Challenges Exist. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2015 Sep. Report No.: GAO-15-775.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Ciolek R. A Mixed Method Study on the Missouri Beginning Teachers Assistance Program and Teacher Retention in Saint Louis School Districts [Doctoral dissertation]. [ St. Charles, MO]: Lindenwood University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Apuzzo M, Fink S, Risen J. U.S. Torture Leaves a Legacy of Detainees With Damaged Minds. New York Times. 2016 Oct 8;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOncology and Therapy
AbbreviationOncol. Ther.
ISSN (print)2366-1070
ISSN (online)2366-1089

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