How to format your references using the Oncology and Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Oncology and Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Nield T. A tribe of jobbing ditchers. Nature. 2008;451:258–60.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Gagliardi L, Roos BO. Quantum chemical calculations show that the uranium molecule U2 has a quintuple bond. Nature. 2005;433:848–51.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Bailor MH, Sun X, Al-Hashimi HM. Topology links RNA secondary structure with global conformation, dynamics, and adaptation. Science. 2010;327:202–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Lee S-H, Broholm C, Ratcliff W, Gasparovic G, Huang Q, Kim TH, et al. Emergent excitations in a geometrically frustrated magnet. Nature. 2002;418:856–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Singh J. Functional Software Size Measurement Methodology with Effort Estimation and Performance Indication. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
1. Hughes GRV, Sangle S, editors. Clinician’s Manual on Lupus. Tarporley: Springer Healthcare Ltd.; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Schmitz RA, Daniel R, Deppenmeier U, Gottschalk G. The Anaerobic Way of Life. In: Dworkin M, Falkow S, Rosenberg E, Schleifer K-H, Stackebrandt E, editors. The Prokaryotes: Volume 2: Ecophysiology and Biochemistry. New York, NY: Springer; 2006. p. 86–101.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Oncology and Therapy.

Blog post
1. O`Callaghan J. You Can Now Download Stephen Hawking’s Voice Software For Free [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Strong Leadership Needed to Avoid Disruption of Essential Services. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998 Mar. Report No.: T-AIMD-98-117.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Clayton-Clark C. Academic performance strategies implemented by successful California superintendents in low-performing school districts [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Stewart JB. Momentum for Tax Reform, Thanks to Trump’s Tactics. New York Times. 2016 Nov 3;B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOncology and Therapy
AbbreviationOncol. Ther.
ISSN (print)2366-1070
ISSN (online)2366-1089

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