How to format your references using the Oncology and Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Oncology and Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Crow JM. HPV: The global burden. Nature. 2012;488:S2-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Sheppard SS, Jewitt DC. An abundant population of small irregular satellites around Jupiter. Nature. 2003;423:261–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Goldman SR, Ebright RH, Nickels BE. Direct detection of abortive RNA transcripts in vivo. Science. 2009;324:927–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Chien EYT, Liu W, Zhao Q, Katritch V, Han GW, Hanson MA, et al. Structure of the human dopamine D3 receptor in complex with a D2/D3 selective antagonist. Science. 2010;330:1091–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Armstrong RA, Hilton AC. Statistical Analysis in Microbiology: Statnotes. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
1. O’Leary BL, Capelotti PJ, editors. Archaeology and Heritage of the Human Movement into Space. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Babatunde Y, Low SP. Appraisal of the Relationships Between the Chinese and the Nigerian Construction Industries. In: Low SP, editor. Cross-Cultural Management and Quality Performance: Chinese Construction Firms in Nigeria. Singapore: Springer; 2015. p. 59–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Oncology and Therapy.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Solar Activity At Birth Could Influence Our Lifespan [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Why NASA’s Property Accounting and Control System Should Be Improved. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1976 Jan. Report No.: FGMSD-75-27.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Harris KR. The need for social workers in community clinic settings: A grant writing project [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Neuman PW. La violencia y el progreso se enfrentan en una ciudad en el Pacífico colombiano. New York Times. 2015 Jul 14;A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOncology and Therapy
AbbreviationOncol. Ther.
ISSN (print)2366-1070
ISSN (online)2366-1089

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