How to format your references using the Oncology and Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Oncology and Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Robinson K. Personal finance. Summer salary and other windfalls. Science. 2006;313:1455.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Lefkowitz RJ, Shenoy SK. Transduction of receptor signals by beta-arrestins. Science. 2005;308:512–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Corcoran AJ, Barber JR, Conner WE. Tiger moth jams bat sonar. Science. 2009;325:325–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Steinle-Neumann G, Stixrude L, Cohen RE, Gülseren O. Elasticity of iron at the temperature of the Earth’s inner core. Nature. 2001;413:57–60.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Pardoux É. Markov Processes and Applications: Algorithms, Networks, Genome and Finance. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
1. Schweizer TA, Macdonald RL, editors. The Behavioral Consequences of Stroke. New York, NY: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Prieto PA, Prieto PA, Hall CAS. Methods: Calculating the Energy Output. The Energy Returned (ER or E out). In: Hall CAS, editor. Spain’s Photovoltaic Revolution: The Energy Return on Investment. New York, NY: Springer; 2013. p. 47–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Oncology and Therapy.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. James Watson Complains That His Racist Remarks Have Affected His Career [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Protest of Contract Award to NASA by City of Los Angeles. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1979 Mar. Report No.: B-182149.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Rodriguez F. Grant proposal: Providing effective screening, training, and supervision for an at-risk youth mentoring program [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kenigsberg B. Film Series. New York Times. 2017 Aug 18;C20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOncology and Therapy
AbbreviationOncol. Ther.
ISSN (print)2366-1070
ISSN (online)2366-1089

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