How to format your references using the Oncology and Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Oncology and Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Marks TJ. Retrospective: Frank Albert Cotton (1930-2007). Science. 2007;316:214.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Tozer S, Morin X. Neuroscience. Young neurons sever ties to the parental niche. Science. 2014;343:146–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Schmauss C, Lee-McDermott Z, Medina LR. Trans-generational effects of early life stress: the role of maternal behavior. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4873.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Ding L, Liu J-L, Hassan W, Wang L-L, Yan F-R, Shang J. Lipid modulatory activities of Cichorium glandulosum Boiss et Huet are mediated by multiple components within hepatocytes. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4715.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Hoffmann K. System Integration. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005.
An edited book
1. Costa R, Kristbergsson K, editors. Predictive Modeling and RiskAssessment. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Christensen HI, Hager GD. Sensing and Estimation. In: Siciliano B, Khatib O, editors. Springer Handbook of Robotics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. p. 87–107.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Oncology and Therapy.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. Flexible Implant Restores Rodent Mobility To Paralyzed Rats [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Space Acquisitions: DOD Needs Additional Knowledge as it Embarks on a New Approach for Transformational Satellite Communications System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2006 May. Report No.: GAO-06-537.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Marcus J. Voices of survival: Opera in Theresienstadt [Doctoral dissertation]. [Boca Raton, FL]: Florida Atlantic University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Shear MD, Martin J. Trump Welcomes West Virginia Governor to G.O.P. New York Times. 2017 Aug 3;A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOncology and Therapy
AbbreviationOncol. Ther.
ISSN (print)2366-1070
ISSN (online)2366-1089

Other styles