How to format your references using the IET Signal Processing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IET Signal Processing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cumming, B.G.: ‘An unexpected specialization for horizontal disparity in primate primary visual cortex’Nature, 2002, 418, (6898), pp. 633–636.
A journal article with 2 authors
Phillpot, S.R., Sinnott, S.B.: ‘Materials science. Simulating multifunctional structures’Science, 2009, 325, (5948), pp. 1634–1635.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lieberman, D., Tooby, J., Cosmides, L.: ‘The architecture of human kin detection’Nature, 2007, 445, (7129), pp. 727–731.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Smith, D.M., Cusack, S., Colman, A.W., Folland, C.K., Harris, G.R., Murphy, J.M.: ‘Improved surface temperature prediction for the coming decade from a global climate model’Science, 2007, 317, (5839), pp. 796–799.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Leuf, B.: ‘The Semantic Web’ (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2006)
An edited book
Özcan, A., Chaki, N., Nagamalai, D. (Eds.): ‘Recent Trends in Wireless and Mobile Networks: Second International Conference, WiMo 2010, Ankara, Turkey, June 26-28, 2010. Proceedings’ (Springer, 2010)
A chapter in an edited book
Khierallah, H.S.M., Bader, S.M., Ibrahim, K.M., Al-Jboory, I.J.: ‘Date Palm Status and Perspective in Iraq’, in Al-Khayri, J.M., Jain, S.M., Johnson, D.V. (Eds.): ‘Date Palm Genetic Resources and Utilization: Volume 2: Asia and Europe’ (Springer Netherlands, 2015), pp. 97–152

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IET Signal Processing.

Blog post
Fang, J.: ‘Nectar Bat With Insanely Long Tongue Found in Bolivia’, accessed October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: ‘Personnel Security: Pass and Security Clearance Data for the Executive Office of the President’ (U.S. Government Printing Office, 1995)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gu, J.: ‘Measurement, modeling, and synthesis of time-varying appearance of natural phenomena’. Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University, 2010

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara, S.: ‘Canvases So Big They Are Seldom Seen’New York Times, 2015, p. WE9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2, 4].
This sentence cites four references [2, 4, 6, 8].

About the journal

Full journal titleIET Signal Processing
ISSN (print)1751-9675
ScopeSignal Processing
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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