How to format your references using the IET Signal Processing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IET Signal Processing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P.: ‘Recruiters and industry. Microsoft’s European perspective’Nature, 2005, 434, (7035), p. 938.
A journal article with 2 authors
Heyward, A.J., Negri, A.P.: ‘Turbulence, cleavage, and the naked embryo: a case for coral clones’Science, 2012, 335, (6072), p. 1064.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lovejoy, C.O., Heiple, K.G., Meindl, R.S.: ‘Palaeoanthropology: Did our ancestors knuckle-walk?’Nature, 2001, 410, (6826), pp. 325–326.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Repp, J., Meyer, G., Olsson, F.E., Persson, M.: ‘Controlling the charge state of individual gold adatoms’Science, 2004, 305, (5683), pp. 493–495.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pijaudier-Cabot, G., La Borderie, C., Reess, T., et al.: ‘Electrohydraulic Fracturing of Rocks’ (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2016)
An edited book
Dirbas, F., Scott-Conner, C. (Eds.): ‘Breast Surgical Techniques and Interdisciplinary Management’ (Springer, 2011)
A chapter in an edited book
Webster, J., Roberts, J., Jones, R.: ‘Development of a Comfort Model for Cricket Leg Guards (P9)’, in Brisson, P. (Ed.): ‘The Engineering of Sport 7: Vol. 1’ (Springer, 2008), pp. 35–44

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IET Signal Processing.

Blog post
Hamilton, K.: ‘Ten Bizarre Animals You’ve Never Heard Of’,, accessed October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: ‘Training Necessary to Address Data Reliability Issues in NASA Agreement Database and to Minimize Potential Competition with Commercial Sector’ (U.S. Government Printing Office, 2011)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Frost, D.C.: ‘Quantitative correlational study of communication satisfaction related to organizational proximity and face-to-face communication’. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, 2009

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lee, L.: ‘Looking for Love and Lobster Salad’New York Times, 2013, p. ST13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2, 4].
This sentence cites four references [2, 4, 6, 8].

About the journal

Full journal titleIET Signal Processing
ISSN (print)1751-9675
ScopeSignal Processing
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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