How to format your references using the IET Signal Processing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IET Signal Processing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Augenbraun, E.: ‘Weapon of mass attraction’Nature, 2005, 433, (7024), pp. 357–358.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hegerl, G.C., Bindoff, N.L.: ‘Ocean science. Warming the world’s oceans’Science, 2005, 309, (5732), pp. 254–255.
A journal article with 3 authors
Aoi, S., Kunugi, T., Fujiwara, H.: ‘Trampoline effect in extreme ground motion’Science, 2008, 322, (5902), pp. 727–730.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Loh, S.-L., Teh, C., Muller, J., Guccione, E., Hong, W., Korzh, V.: ‘Zebrafish yap1 plays a role in differentiation of hair cells in posterior lateral line’Sci. Rep., 2014, 4, p. 4289.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mariño, P.P.: ‘Optimization of Computer Networks - Modeling and Algorithms’ (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2016)
An edited book
Naito, S., Hirao, Y., Terachi, T. (Eds.): ‘Endourological Management of Urogenital Carcinoma’ (Springer, 2006)
A chapter in an edited book
Issa, T., Isaias, P.: ‘Color, Prototyping and Navigation, Principles and Guidelines Design, Evaluation and Testing; Task Analysis’, in Isaias, P. (Ed.): ‘Sustainable Design: HCI, Usability and Environmental Concerns’ (Springer, 2015), pp. 71–86

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IET Signal Processing.

Blog post
Fang, J.: ‘NASA Sees Your Holiday Lights From Space’,, accessed October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: ‘Information and Technology Management: Responsibilities, Reporting Relationships, Tenure, and Challenges of Agency Chief Information Officers’ (U.S. Government Printing Office, 2004)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Akers, K.: ‘The Impact of Work-Family Conflict, Gender, and Family-Friendly Policies on Organizational Attractiveness and Job Pursuit Intentions’. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, 2017

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M.: ‘Keeping Up With His Followers’New York Times, 2013, p. E1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2, 4].
This sentence cites four references [2, 4, 6, 8].

About the journal

Full journal titleIET Signal Processing
ISSN (print)1751-9675
ScopeSignal Processing
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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