How to format your references using the IET Signal Processing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IET Signal Processing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ivell, R.: ‘Endocrinology. This hormone has been relaxin’ too long!’Science, 2002, 295, (5555), pp. 637–638.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chen, Y., Schier, A.F.: ‘The zebrafish Nodal signal Squint functions as a morphogen’Nature, 2001, 411, (6837), pp. 607–610.
A journal article with 3 authors
Riemer, J., Bulleid, N., Herrmann, J.M.: ‘Disulfide formation in the ER and mitochondria: two solutions to a common process’Science, 2009, 324, (5932), pp. 1284–1287.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hart, R.A., Xu, X., Legere, R., Gibble, K.: ‘A quantum scattering interferometer’Nature, 2007, 446, (7138), pp. 892–895.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ming, D., Glasser, D., Hildebrandt, D., Glasser, B., Metzer, M.: ‘Attainable Region Theory’ (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2016)
An edited book
Aston, P.J., Mulholland, A.J., Tant, K.M.M. (Eds.): ‘UK Success Stories in Industrial Mathematics’ (Springer International Publishing, 2016, 1st ed. 2016)
A chapter in an edited book
Gaiardelli, P., Songini, L., Saccani, N.: ‘The Automotive Industry: Heading Towards Servitization in Turbulent Times’, in Lay, G. (Ed.): ‘Servitization in Industry’ (Springer International Publishing, 2014), pp. 55–72

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IET Signal Processing.

Blog post
Davis, J.: ‘Archaeologist Claims To Have Found Aristotle’s Tomb’,, accessed October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: ‘The Cost Of Aerospace Ground Equipment Could Be Reduced’ (U.S. Government Printing Office, 1974)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mylonas, A.: ‘“Women are the pillars of the family”: Athenian women’s survival strategies during economic crisis’. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2014

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Diamond, J.: ‘Finding My Florida’New York Times, 2017, p. TR1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2, 4].
This sentence cites four references [2, 4, 6, 8].

About the journal

Full journal titleIET Signal Processing
ISSN (print)1751-9675
ScopeSignal Processing
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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