How to format your references using the Learning Environments Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Learning Environments Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schein, L. B. (2007). Applied physics. Recent progress and continuing puzzles in electrostatics. Science (New York, N.Y.), 316(5831), 1572–1573.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lane, J., & Bertuzzi, S. (2011). Research funding. Measuring the results of science investments. Science (New York, N.Y.), 331(6018), 678–680.
A journal article with 3 authors
Faucher-Giguère, C.-A., Lidz, A., & Hernquist, L. (2008). Numerical simulations unravel the cosmic web. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5859), 52–55.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Mojić, M., Bogdanović Pristov, J., Maksimović-Ivanić, D., Jones, D. R., Stanić, M., Mijatović, S., & Spasojević, I. (2014). Extracellular iron diminishes anticancer effects of vitamin C: an in vitro study. Scientific reports, 4, 5955.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Islam, M. R., Islam, J. S., Zatzman, G. M., Mughal, M. A. H., & Rahman, M. S. (2015). The Greening of Pharmaceutical Engineering. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Hellborg, R. (Ed.). (2005). Electrostatic Accelerators: Fundamentals and Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ciocon, D. H., Bae, Y. S., & Kilmer, S. L. (2013). Ablative and Non-ablative Fractional Resurfacing. In D. J. Goldberg (Ed.), Laser Dermatology (pp. 89–105). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Learning Environments Research.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2016, September 28). World’s First Three-Parent Baby Raises Questions About Long-Term Health Risks. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1977). The Federal Role in Merchant Marine Officer Education (No. FPCD-77-44). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gonzalez, S. N. (2010). Analysis of the impact of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act on California’s children: A report card on the CalWORKs program (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G. G. (2016, June 23). A Superhero Who Defies Gravity, Despite a Heavy Burden. New York Times, p. C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schein 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Lane and Bertuzzi 2011; Schein 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lane and Bertuzzi 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Mojić et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleLearning Environments Research
AbbreviationLearn. Environ. Res.
ISSN (print)1387-1579
ISSN (online)1573-1855
ScopeDevelopmental and Educational Psychology

Other styles