How to format your references using the Learning Environments Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Learning Environments Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
White, M. F. (2003). Insulin signaling in health and disease. Science (New York, N.Y.), 302(5651), 1710–1711.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sepúlveda, J., & Murray, C. (2014). The state of global health in 2014. Science (New York, N.Y.), 345(6202), 1275–1278.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ni, J., Yan, Q., & Yu, Y. (2013). How much metagenomic sequencing is enough to achieve a given goal? Scientific reports, 3, 1968.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Luo, L., Yang, X., Takihara, Y., Knoetgen, H., & Kessel, M. (2004). The cell-cycle regulator geminin inhibits Hox function through direct and polycomb-mediated interactions. Nature, 427(6976), 749–753.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Corsi, P., & Dulieu, M. (2013). The Marketing of Technology Intensive Products and Services. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Zaidi, M. K., & Mustafaev, I. (Eds.). (2005). Radiation Safety Problems in the Caspian Region (Vol. 41). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Shilov, N. V., & Garanina, N. O. (2011). Combined Logics of Knowledge, Time, and Actions for Reasoning about Multi-agent Systems. In K. E. Wolff, D. E. Palchunov, N. G. Zagoruiko, & U. Andelfinger (Eds.), Knowledge Processing and Data Analysis: First International Conference, KONT 2007, Novosibirsk, Russia, September 14-16, 2007 and First International Conference, KPP 2007,Darmstadt, Germany, September 28-30, 2007. Revised Selected Papers (pp. 48–58). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Learning Environments Research.

Blog post
Carpineti, C. (2017, February 14). There Could Be An Enormous Secret Concealed Within Tutankhamun’s Tomb. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2005). Telecommunications: Preliminary Information on the Federal Communications Commission’s Spectrum Allocation and Assignment Process (No. GAO-06-212R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Orozco, M. (2015). Music preference and its effects on emotion processes and identity development in young adult females: An examination of the “emo” subculture (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2010, March 18). In the End, Conduct Is What Counts. New York Times, p. B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (White 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Sepúlveda and Murray 2014; White 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sepúlveda and Murray 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Luo et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleLearning Environments Research
AbbreviationLearn. Environ. Res.
ISSN (print)1387-1579
ISSN (online)1573-1855
ScopeDevelopmental and Educational Psychology

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