How to format your references using the Learning Environments Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Learning Environments Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Larson, G. (2015). Anthropology. How wheat came to Britain. Science (New York, N.Y.), 347(6225), 945–946.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sánchez, I., & Dynlacht, B. D. (2014). Cell biology: Short RNAs and shortness of breath. Nature, 510(7503), 40–42.
A journal article with 3 authors
Terry, L. J., Shows, E. B., & Wente, S. R. (2007). Crossing the nuclear envelope: hierarchical regulation of nucleocytoplasmic transport. Science (New York, N.Y.), 318(5855), 1412–1416.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Trauth, M. H., Maslin, M. A., Deino, A., & Strecker, M. R. (2005). Late Cenozoic moisture history of East Africa. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5743), 2051–2053.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Choi, N.-E., & Han, J. H. (2015). How Flavor Works. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Demirkan, H., Spohrer, J. C., & Krishna, V. (Eds.). (2011). The Science of Service Systems. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
von Hippel, F. N. (2013). The Feasibility of a Diplomatic Solution to the Confrontation over Iran’s Nuclear Program. In J. Kang (Ed.), Assessment of the Nuclear Programs of Iran and North Korea (pp. 67–76). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Learning Environments Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, August 24). Why Is The Sun’s Outer Layer 200 Times Hotter Than Its Surface? IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2000). FTS2001: Improving the Revenue Estimation Process (No. AIMD-00-147R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Barbeau, S. J. (2012). A Location-Aware Architecture Supporting Intelligent Real-Time Mobile Applications (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017, May 17). So Much for the Arms That Carry the Mets. New York Times, p. B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Larson 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Larson 2015; Sánchez and Dynlacht 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sánchez and Dynlacht 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Trauth et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleLearning Environments Research
AbbreviationLearn. Environ. Res.
ISSN (print)1387-1579
ISSN (online)1573-1855
ScopeDevelopmental and Educational Psychology

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