How to format your references using the Learning Environments Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Learning Environments Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Watanabe, S. (2015). Slow or fast? A tale of synaptic vesicle recycling. Science (New York, N.Y.), 350(6256), 46–47.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shao, S., & Hegde, R. S. (2014). Cell Biology. Local synthesis and disposal. Science (New York, N.Y.), 346(6210), 701–702.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wilson, A. H., Shirey, S. B., & Carlson, R. W. (2003). Archaean ultra-depleted komatiites formed by hydrous melting of cratonic mantle. Nature, 423(6942), 858–861.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Cohen, I., Li, H., Hougland, J. L., Mrksich, M., & Nagel, S. R. (2001). Using selective withdrawal to coat microparticles. Science (New York, N.Y.), 292(5515), 265–267.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nedoma, J., Stehlík, J., Hlaváček, I., Daněk, J., Dostálová, T., & Přečková, P. (2011). Mathematical and Computational Methods in Biomechanics of Human Skeletal Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Murgante, B., Gervasi, O., Iglesias, A., Taniar, D., & Apduhan, B. O. (Eds.). (2011). Computational Science and Its Applications - ICCSA 2011: International Conference, Santander, Spain, June 20-23, 2011. Proceedings, Part II (Vol. 6783). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Thibodeau, K. (2016). Research Issues in Archival Provenance. In V. L. Lemieux (Ed.), Building Trust in Information: Perspectives on the Frontiers of Provenance (pp. 69–78). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Learning Environments Research.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2017, April 4). New Horizons Is Now Halfway Between Pluto And Its Next Target In The Outer Solar System. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1976). HEW’s Refund Policies of Basic Grants and Other Student Aid Programs (No. 089573). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Grace, J. (2017). A Correlational Study of the Relationship Between TEAS V and Success in Licensed Practical Nursing Students (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ewing, J., Tabuchi, H., & Protess, B. (2017, January 6). Volkswagen Said to Be Near Deal With U.S. in Diesel Case. New York Times, p. B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Watanabe 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Shao and Hegde 2014; Watanabe 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shao and Hegde 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Cohen et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleLearning Environments Research
AbbreviationLearn. Environ. Res.
ISSN (print)1387-1579
ISSN (online)1573-1855
ScopeDevelopmental and Educational Psychology

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