How to format your references using the Learning Environments Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Learning Environments Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nielsen, M. W. (2015). Make academic job advertisements fair to all. Nature, 525(7570), 427.
A journal article with 2 authors
Haga, S. B., & Venter, J. C. (2003). Genetics. FDA races in wrong direction. Science (New York, N.Y.), 301(5632), 466.
A journal article with 3 authors
Deitsch, K. W., Calderwood, M. S., & Wellems, T. E. (2001). Malaria. Cooperative silencing elements in var genes. Nature, 412(6850), 875–876.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Perillo, B., Ombra, M. N., Bertoni, A., Cuozzo, C., Sacchetti, S., Sasso, A., et al. (2008). DNA oxidation as triggered by H3K9me2 demethylation drives estrogen-induced gene expression. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5860), 202–206.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zhang, K. Q. T. (2015). Wireless Communications. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Hu, X., & Wang, J. (Eds.). (2008). Computing and Combinatorics: 14th Annual International Conference, COCOON 2008 Dalian, China, June 27-29, 2008 Proceedings (Vol. 5092). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Rawski, M., Tomaszewicz, P., Borowik, G., & Łuba, T. (2011). 5 Logic Synthesis Method of Digital Circuits Designed for Implementation with Embedded Memory Blocks of FPGAs. In M. Adamski, A. Barkalov, & M. Węgrzyn (Eds.), Design of Digital Systems and Devices (pp. 121–144). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Learning Environments Research.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2015, July 31). Watch A Tapir Scratch An Itch With His Enormous, Prehensile Penis. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1986). ADP Acquisitions: Patent Automation Encountering Major Planning and Procurement Problems (No. IMTEC-86-19). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Morikawa, T. (2010). Aerodynamic analysis of an over-the-wing engine-mount aircraft (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, J. (2017, February 1). Where the Rogue Cop Rules. New York Times, p. C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nielsen 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Haga and Venter 2003; Nielsen 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Haga and Venter 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Perillo et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleLearning Environments Research
AbbreviationLearn. Environ. Res.
ISSN (print)1387-1579
ISSN (online)1573-1855
ScopeDevelopmental and Educational Psychology

Other styles