How to format your references using the Learning Environments Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Learning Environments Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kessler, F. (2012). Plant science. Chloroplast delivery by UPS. Science (New York, N.Y.), 338(6107), 622–623.
A journal article with 2 authors
Raiborg, C., & Stenmark, H. (2009). The ESCRT machinery in endosomal sorting of ubiquitylated membrane proteins. Nature, 458(7237), 445–452.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gagnon, K., Chadwell, C. D., & Norabuena, E. (2005). Measuring the onset of locking in the Peru-Chile trench with GPS and acoustic measurements. Nature, 434(7030), 205–208.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Cao, S., Li, C., Wang, L., Shang, M., Wei, G., Zheng, J., & Yang, W. (2014). Long-lived and well-resolved Mn2+ ion emissions in CuInS-ZnS quantum dots. Scientific reports, 4, 7510.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sharma, Y. C. (2011). A Guide to the Economic Removal of Metals from Aqueous Solutions. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Jackson, M. B., Mookherjee, S., & Hamlin, N. P. (Eds.). (2015). The Perioperative Medicine Consult Handbook (Second Edition.). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Tippet, R. (2016). Corporate Geocorpographies: Surveillance and Social Media Expansion. In H. Randell-Moon & R. Tippet (Eds.), Security, Race, Biopower: Essays on Technology and Corporeality (pp. 81–100). London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Learning Environments Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, April 28). Made-To-Order Cartilage Could Combat Osteoarthritis. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1988). An Empty Pump Down the Road? (No. 136529). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lewis, P. A. (2012). Love and hate: The study of school principals moving from job motivation to job frustration (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. (2017, August 31). Hot for a Dairy Queen Sign. New York Times, p. C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kessler 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Kessler 2012; Raiborg and Stenmark 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Raiborg and Stenmark 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Cao et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleLearning Environments Research
AbbreviationLearn. Environ. Res.
ISSN (print)1387-1579
ISSN (online)1573-1855
ScopeDevelopmental and Educational Psychology
Education
Communication

Other styles