How to format your references using the Visual Cognition citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Visual Cognition. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. (2004). Two-way traffic. Nature, 431(7008), 611.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wu, L.-Q., & Dickman, J. D. (2012). Neural correlates of a magnetic sense. Science (New York, N.Y.), 336(6084), 1054–1057.
A journal article with 3 authors
Usami, Y., Wu, Y., & Göttlinger, H. G. (2015). SERINC3 and SERINC5 restrict HIV-1 infectivity and are counteracted by Nef. Nature, 526(7572), 218–223.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kelley, S. P., Dunlop, J. I., Kirkness, E. F., Lambert, J. J., & Peters, J. A. (2003). A cytoplasmic region determines single-channel conductance in 5-HT3 receptors. Nature, 424(6946), 321–324.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Paoluzzi, A., Pascucci, V., Vicentino, M., Baldazzi, C., & Portuesi, S. (2005). Geometric Programming for Computer-Aided Design. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Siddharthan, N. S., & Narayanan, K. (Eds.). (2016). Technology: Corporate and Social Dimensions. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Edelman, P. H. (2006). Minimum Total Deviation Apportionments. In B. Simeone & F. Pukelsheim (Eds.), Mathematics and Democracy: Recent Advances in Voting Systems and Collective Choice (pp. 55–64). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Visual Cognition.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015, November 12). Gravity May Delay Loss Of Antarctic Ice. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1996). Best Management Practices: Reengineering the Air Force’s Logistics System Can Yield Substantial Savings (NSIAD-96-5). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Graham, H. H. (2010). Leadership as co-influencing: A heuristic narrative study of dynamic co-emergence within the leadership relationship [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, J. (2016, November 19). Donald Trump Hits the Town. New York Times, A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik, 2004; Wu & Dickman, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wu & Dickman, 2012)
  • Three authors: (Usami et al., 2015)
  • 6 or more authors: (Kelley et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleVisual Cognition
AbbreviationVis. cogn.
ISSN (print)1350-6285
ISSN (online)1464-0716
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Cognitive Neuroscience
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

Other styles