How to format your references using the Visual Cognition citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Visual Cognition. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eldakar, O. T. (2009). Journal club. An evolutionary biologist learns how to be remembered: cheat someone. Nature, 460(7257), 783.
A journal article with 2 authors
Burrows, M., & Sutton, G. (2013). Interacting gears synchronize propulsive leg movements in a jumping insect. Science (New York, N.Y.), 341(6151), 1254–1256.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zanardi, I., Zifarelli, G., & Pusch, M. (2013). An optical assay of the transport activity of ClC-7. Scientific Reports, 3, 1231.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Liao, S.-H., Jhuo, H.-J., Yeh, P.-N., Cheng, Y.-S., Li, Y.-L., Lee, Y.-H., … Chen, S.-A. (2014). Single junction inverted polymer solar cell reaching power conversion efficiency 10.31% by employing dual-doped zinc oxide nano-film as cathode interlayer. Scientific Reports, 4, 6813.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Balani, K., Verma, V., Agarwal, A., & Narayan, R. (2014). Biosurfaces. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Korb, K., Randall, M., & Hendtlass, T. (Eds.). (2009). Artificial Life: Borrowing from Biology: 4th Australian Conference, ACAL 2009, Melbourne, Australia, December 1-4, 2009. Proceedings (Vol. 5865). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Traest, P., & Gombeer, T. (2008). The Autonomy of Defense and Defense Counsel. In M. Sellers (Ed.), Autonomy: In the Law (pp. 97–139). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Visual Cognition.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015, June 9). Study Suggests Ejaculation Reduces The Risk Of Prostate Cancer. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2014). Ineffective Planning and Oversight Practices Underscore the Need for Improved Contract Management (No. GAO-14-694). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gindin, M. (2012). Identification and Characterization of Putative Secreted Proteins from the Adult-Stage Hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J. (2017, June 13). Netflix, With Money to Burn, Draws the Ire of Spurned TV Executives. New York Times, p. B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Eldakar, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Burrows & Sutton, 2013; Eldakar, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Burrows & Sutton, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Zanardi, Zifarelli, & Pusch, 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Liao et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleVisual Cognition
AbbreviationVis. cogn.
ISSN (print)1350-6285
ISSN (online)1464-0716
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Cognitive Neuroscience
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

Other styles