How to format your references using the Visual Cognition citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Visual Cognition. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Roelfsema, P. R. (2002). Do neurons predict the future? Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5553), 227.
A journal article with 2 authors
Birney, E., & Soranzo, N. (2015). Human genomics: The end of the start for population sequencing. Nature, 526(7571), 52–53.
A journal article with 3 authors
Qiu, X. H., Nazin, G. V., & Ho, W. (2003). Vibrationally resolved fluorescence excited with submolecular precision. Science (New York, N.Y.), 299(5606), 542–546.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Ingraham, J. M., Deng, Z. D., Martinez, J. J., Trumbo, B. A., Mueller, R. P., & Weiland, M. A. (2014). Feasibility of tracking fish with acoustic transmitters in the Ice Harbor Dam tailrace. Scientific Reports, 4, 4090.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ben Mahmoud, M. S., Larrieu, N., & Pirovano, A. (2013). Risk Propagation Assessment for Network Security. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ding, Y., Rousseau, R., & Wolfram, D. (Eds.). (2014). Measuring Scholarly Impact: Methods and Practice. Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Sahayaraj, K., & Balasubramanian, R. (2016). Gut Enzyme Profile. In R. Balasubramanian (Ed.), Artificial Rearing of Reduviid Predators for Pest Management (pp. 103–120). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Visual Cognition.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015, March 7). Scientists Shave Spider’s Moustaches To See If They Help Lure Prey. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1999). Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Readiness Status of the Department of Health and Human Services (T-AIMD-99-92). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cherukuri, H. (2014). 1, 3-Dipolar Reaction of gem-Dicyanoepoxide with a Fluoro-Olefin [Doctoral dissertation]. Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear, M. D., & Goodnough, A. (2017, August 10). President Is Preparing to Declare a National Emergency Over the Opioid Epidemic. New York Times, A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Roelfsema, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Birney & Soranzo, 2015; Roelfsema, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Birney & Soranzo, 2015)
  • Three authors: (Qiu et al., 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (Ingraham et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleVisual Cognition
AbbreviationVis. cogn.
ISSN (print)1350-6285
ISSN (online)1464-0716
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Cognitive Neuroscience
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

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