How to format your references using the Visual Cognition citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Visual Cognition. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Skinner, L. (2012). Climate change. A long view on climate sensitivity. Science (New York, N.Y.), 337(6097), 917–919.
A journal article with 2 authors
Krushelnick, K., & Cowley, S. (2005). Physics. Reduced turbulence and new opportunities for fusion. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5740), 1502–1503.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yamashita, Y. M., Jones, D. L., & Fuller, M. T. (2003). Orientation of asymmetric stem cell division by the APC tumor suppressor and centrosome. Science (New York, N.Y.), 301(5639), 1547–1550.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Tritten, L., Keiser, J., Godejohann, M., Utzinger, J., Vargas, M., Beckonert, O., Holmes, E., & Saric, J. (2013). Metabolic profiling framework for discovery of candidate diagnostic markers of malaria. Scientific Reports, 3, 2769.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Willis, D. O. (2013). Business Basics for Dentists. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Sampliner, R. E. (Ed.). (2009). Endoscopic Therapy for Barrett’s Esophagus. Humana Press.
A chapter in an edited book
Daillant, J., Mora, S., & Sentenac, A. (2009). Diffuse Scattering. In J. Daillant & A. Gibaud (Eds.), X-ray and Neutron Reflectivity: Principles and Applications (pp. 133–182). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Visual Cognition.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015, March 9). Love Hormone Oxytocin Helps Men Eat Better. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2011). Public Transportation: Washington Metro Could Benefit from Clarified Board Roles and Responsibilities, Improved Strategic Planning (GAO-11-660). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Payan Venegas, R. (2012). Factors associated with the lack of a regular health care provider for Latinos: Consequences and reasons [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Tomasky, M. (2017, June 12). A Tax Revolt in Kansas. New York Times, A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Skinner, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Krushelnick & Cowley, 2005; Skinner, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Krushelnick & Cowley, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Yamashita et al., 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (Tritten et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleVisual Cognition
AbbreviationVis. cogn.
ISSN (print)1350-6285
ISSN (online)1464-0716
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Cognitive Neuroscience
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

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