How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics: Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics: Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
N. Savage, “Physiology: Beating stroke,” Nature, vol. 493, no. 7434, pp. S12-3, Jan. 2013.
A journal article with 2 authors
M. Utz and J. Landers, “Chemistry. Magnetic resonance and microfluidics,” Science, vol. 330, no. 6007, pp. 1056–1058, Nov. 2010.
A journal article with 3 authors
C. C. Pack, V. K. Berezovskii, and R. T. Born, “Dynamic properties of neurons in cortical area MT in alert and anaesthetized macaque monkeys,” Nature, vol. 414, no. 6866, pp. 905–908, 2001.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
N. T. Sahin, S. Pinker, S. S. Cash, D. Schomer, and E. Halgren, “Sequential processing of lexical, grammatical, and phonological information within Broca’s area,” Science, vol. 326, no. 5951, pp. 445–449, Oct. 2009.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
L. Leroy, Eyestrain Reduction in Stereoscopy. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2016.
An edited book
D. Krishnaswamy, T. Pfeifer, and D. Raz, Eds., Real-Time Mobile Multimedia Services: 10th IFIP/IEEE International Conference on Management of Multimedia and Mobile Networks and Services, MMNS 2007, San José, USA, October 31 - November 2, 2007 Proceedings, vol. 4787. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
D. Morschett, H. Schramm-Klein, and J. Zentes, “Role Typologies for Foreign Subsidiaries,” in Strategic International Management: Text and Cases, H. Schramm-Klein and J. Zentes, Eds. Wiesbaden: Gabler, 2009, pp. 51–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics: Systems.

Blog post
R. Andrews, “Google Is Celebrating The Antikythera Mechanism’s Discovery – But What The Hell Is It?,” IFLScience, May 17, 2017. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Attack Warning: ADP Replacement for Warning and Assessment System Still Years Away,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, IMTEC-86-15, Jun. 1986.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C. Taylor, “The Crowd,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2011.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. W. Walsh, “Puerto Rico Aims to Appease Congress With a New Proposal on Its Debt,” New York Times, p. B3, Apr. 12, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics: Systems
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. Syst.
ISSN (print)2168-2216
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Human-Computer Interaction
Control and Systems Engineering
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Other styles