How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Emerging Topics in Computing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Emerging Topics in Computing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Q. Schiermeier, “Fading support ends Europe’s dreams of neutron supremacy,” Nature, vol. 421, no. 6923, p. 563, Feb. 2003.
A journal article with 2 authors
D. Haussecker and M. A. Kay, “RNA interference. Drugging RNAi,” Science, vol. 347, no. 6226, pp. 1069–1070, Mar. 2015.
A journal article with 3 authors
M. Sturm, C. Racine, and K. Tape, “Climate change. Increasing shrub abundance in the Arctic,” Nature, vol. 411, no. 6837, pp. 546–547, May 2001.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S. Carosio, L. Barberi, E. Rizzuto, C. Nicoletti, Z. Del Prete, and A. Musarò, “Generation of eX vivo-vascularized Muscle Engineered Tissue (X-MET),” Sci. Rep., vol. 3, p. 1420, 2013.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
B. R. Hopkins, Fundraising Law Made Easy. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2009.
An edited book
J. Birtchnell, M. Newberry, and A. Kalaitzaki, Eds., Relating Theory – Clinical and Forensic Applications. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
V. Wang and E. G. Carayannis, “Results,” in Promoting Balanced Competitiveness Strategies of Firms in Developing Countries, E. G. Carayannis, Ed. New York, NY: Springer, 2012, pp. 73–89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Emerging Topics in Computing.

Blog post
J. Davis, “Scientists Create A Mind-Controlled Turtle,” IFLScience, Mar. 31, 2017. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Technology Development: New DOD Space Science and Technology Strategy Provides Basis for Optimizing Investments, but Future Versions Need to Be More Robust,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-05-155, Jan. 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. Dobbs, “The Potential Use of PEI Modified Biochar for Different Environmental Applications,” Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Loomis, “Stretching the Boundaries of Opera,” New York Times, p. 0, Oct. 16, 2012.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Emerging Topics in Computing
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Emerg. Top. Comput.
ISSN (print)2168-6750
ScopeComputer Science (miscellaneous)
Computer Science Applications
Human-Computer Interaction
Information Systems

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