How to format your references using the Parallel Computing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Parallel Computing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P. Baveye, To create generalists, teach students how to learn by themselves, Nature. 404 (2000) 329.
A journal article with 2 authors
P. Macnaghten, R. Owen, Environmental science: good governance for geoengineering, Nature. 479 (2011) 293.
A journal article with 3 authors
Y. Brandvain, M.S. Barker, M.J. Wade, Gene co-inheritance and gene transfer, Science. 315 (2007) 1685.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
T.H. Zurbuchen, J.M. Raines, J.A. Slavin, D.J. Gershman, J.A. Gilbert, G. Gloeckler, B.J. Anderson, D.N. Baker, H. Korth, S.M. Krimigis, M. Sarantos, D. Schriver, R.L. McNutt Jr, S.C. Solomon, MESSENGER observations of the spatial distribution of planetary ions near Mercury, Science. 333 (2011) 1862–1865.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
C. Rochange, S. Uhrig, P. Sainrat, Time-Predictable Architectures, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2013.
An edited book
M. Belkin, Strategic ICT Planning in Pathology, Springer, New York, NY, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
D. Sobhy, R. Bahsoon, L. Minku, R. Kazman, Diversifying Software Architecture for Sustainability: A Value-Based Perspective, in: B. Tekinerdogan, U. Zdun, A. Babar (Eds.), Software Architecture: 10th European Conference, ECSA 2016, Copenhagen, Denmark, November 28 -- December 2, 2016, Proceedings, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 55–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Parallel Computing.

Blog post
J. Davis, Trial Provides Tentative Hope Of “Functional Cure” For Some People Living With HIV, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Higher Education: Gaps in Parents’ and Students’ Knowledge of School Costs and Federal Aid, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R.E. Myers, Moderating the effectiveness of messages to promote physical activity in type 2 diabetes, Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Protess, MF Global’s Fall May Cost Corzine About $5 Million, New York Times. (2016) B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleParallel Computing
AbbreviationParallel Comput.
ISSN (print)0167-8191
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
Computer Networks and Communications
Hardware and Architecture
Theoretical Computer Science

Other styles