How to format your references using the Parallel Computing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Parallel Computing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S.B. Power, Climate science: Expulsion from history, Nature. 511 (2014) 38–39.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. Rehwinkel, C. Reis e Sousa, RIGorous detection: exposing virus through RNA sensing, Science. 327 (2010) 284–286.
A journal article with 3 authors
R. Okuwaki, Y. Yagi, S. Hirano, Relationship between high-frequency radiation and asperity ruptures, revealed by hybrid back-projection with a non-planar fault model, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 7120.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
G.V.R. Prasad, O. Verma, A. Sahni, V. Parmar, A. Khosla, A Cretaceous hoofed mammal from India, Science. 318 (2007) 937.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
S. Sanders, Seizures in Dogs and Cats, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ, 2015.
An edited book
A. Prékopa, E. Molnár, eds., Non-Euclidean Geometries: János Bolyai Memorial Volume, Springer US, Boston, MA, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
A. Rai, The Possibility of Satire: Reading Pratap Narain Misra’s Brāhmaṇ, 1883–1890, in: H. Harder, B. Mittler (Eds.), Asian Punches: A Transcultural Affair, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013: pp. 65–74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Parallel Computing.

Blog post
E. Andrew, If Everyone Lived in An ‘Ecovillage’, the Earth Would Still be in Trouble, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, The Maritime Administration’s Evaluation of the End Products of Research and Development Contracts with Private, Profitmaking Firms, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
T. Ekici, An Investigation of Credit Card Debt: The Effect of Price and Income Expectations and the Impact on Consumption, Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, 2006.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Brantley, Some Friends Just Aren’t Huggers, New York Times. (2017) C5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleParallel Computing
AbbreviationParallel Comput.
ISSN (print)0167-8191
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
Computer Networks and Communications
Hardware and Architecture
Theoretical Computer Science

Other styles