How to format your references using the Consciousness and Cognition citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Consciousness and Cognition. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brockhurst, M. (2010). Journal club. An evolutionary biologist marvels at how species evolve to help each other out. Nature, 464(7288), 469.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mederos, A., & Lamberg-Karlovsky, C. C. (2001). Converting currencies in the Old World. Nature, 411(6836), 437.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jansen, V. A. A., Mashanova, A., & Petrovskii, S. (2012). Comment on “Lévy walks evolve through interaction between movement and environmental complexity.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 335(6071), 918; author reply 918.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Peng, Y.-P., Yuan, X., Zhang, J., & Zhang, L. (2014). The effect of La₂O₃ in Tm3+-doped germanate-tellurite glasses for ~2 μm emission. Scientific Reports, 4, 5256.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nölte, J. (2005). ICP Emissionsspektrometrie für Praktiker. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Mayers, D. L. (Ed.). (2009). Antimicrobial Drug Resistance: Mechanisms of Drug Resistance. Humana Press.
A chapter in an edited book
Anderson, J. B., Beekman, R. H., Martin, G. R., & Lannon, C. (2015). Quality Improvement in Pediatric Cardiology: The National Pediatric Cardiology Quality Improvement Collaborative. In P. R. Barach, J. P. Jacobs, S. E. Lipshultz, & P. C. Laussen (Eds.), Pediatric and Congenital Cardiac Care: Volume 2: Quality Improvement and Patient Safety (pp. 51–67). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Consciousness and Cognition.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, September 21). Sitting Infront Of A Light Box Every Morning Increases Male Sexual Satisfaction, Study Says. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1993). State of the Airline Industry: Strategies for Addressing Financial and Competition Problems (T-RCED-93-21). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
George, K. A. (2014). Housing adequacy and civic engagement in Los Angeles County [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel, B. (2017, March 26). A Contender Reaches a New High. New York Times, SP1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brockhurst, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Brockhurst, 2010; Mederos & Lamberg-Karlovsky, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mederos & Lamberg-Karlovsky, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Jansen et al., 2012)
  • 6 or more authors: (Peng et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleConsciousness and Cognition
AbbreviationConscious. Cogn.
ISSN (print)1053-8100
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Developmental and Educational Psychology
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

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