How to format your references using the Consciousness and Cognition citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Consciousness and Cognition. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Woo, H. J. (2013). Stationary distribution of self-organized states and biological information generation. Scientific Reports, 3, 3329.
A journal article with 2 authors
Braun-Munzinger, P., & Stachel, J. (2007). The quest for the quark-gluon plasma. Nature, 448(7151), 302–309.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li, L. Y., Luo, X., & Wang, X. (2001). Endonuclease G is an apoptotic DNase when released from mitochondria. Nature, 412(6842), 95–99.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Potter, B. A., Beaudoin, A. B., Haynes, C. V., Holliday, V. T., Holmes, C. E., Ives, J. W., Kelly, R., Llamas, B., Malhi, R., Miller, S., Reich, D., Reuther, J. D., Schiffels, S., & Surovell, T. (2018). Arrival routes of first Americans uncertain. Science (New York, N.Y.), 359(6381), 1224–1225.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kesidis, G. (2007). An Introduction to Communication Network Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Menezes, A. (Ed.). (2005). Topics in Cryptology – CT-RSA 2005: The Cryptographers’ Track at the RSA Conference 2005, San Francisco, CA, USA, February 14-18, 2005. Proceedings (Vol. 3376). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Dietz, H. G., & Young, B. D. (2010). MIMD Interpretation on a GPU. In G. R. Gao, L. L. Pollock, J. Cavazos, & X. Li (Eds.), Languages and Compilers for Parallel Computing: 22nd International Workshop, LCPC 2009, Newark, DE, USA, October 8-10, 2009, Revised Selected Papers (pp. 65–79). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Consciousness and Cognition.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2015, January 10). Rare Half-Male, Half-Female Butterfly Found At Museum. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2008). Commercial Aviation: Impact of Airline Crew Scheduling on Delays and Cancellations of Commercial Flights (GAO-08-1041R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cardillo-Geller, L. (2010). Renegotiating relationships, patterns of grief and experiences of support: An examination of mothers’ relationships with their daughters following daughters’ loss of a husband in the September 11 th, 2001 World Trade Center attacks [Doctoral dissertation]. Columbia University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017, February 13). Beefier Syndergaard Envisions a Fastball With Even More Heft. New York Times, D5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Woo, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Braun-Munzinger & Stachel, 2007; Woo, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Braun-Munzinger & Stachel, 2007)
  • Three authors: (Li et al., 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Potter et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleConsciousness and Cognition
AbbreviationConscious. Cogn.
ISSN (print)1053-8100
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Developmental and Educational Psychology
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

Other styles