How to format your references using the Consciousness and Cognition citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Consciousness and Cognition. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Haufe, G. (2012). Chemistry. Putting a greenhouse gas to work. Science (New York, N.Y.), 338(6112), 1298.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bendor, D., & Wang, X. (2005). The neuronal representation of pitch in primate auditory cortex. Nature, 436(7054), 1161–1165.
A journal article with 3 authors
Abramson, J., Paz, A., & Philipson, K. D. (2012). Structural biology. It’s all in the symmetry. Science (New York, N.Y.), 335(6069), 669–670.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Yoshida, H., Bando, T., Mito, T., Ohuchi, H., & Noji, S. (2014). An extended steepness model for leg-size determination based on Dachsous/Fat trans-dimer system. Scientific Reports, 4, 4335.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mastro, P. F. (2016). Plastics Product Design. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Omatu, S., Semalat, A., Bocewicz, G., Sitek, P., Nielsen, I. E., García García, J. A., & Bajo, J. (Eds.). (2016). Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence, 13th International Conference (Vol. 474). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Torri, M. C., & Herrmann, T. M. (2011). Ethnomedicine, Capacity Development, and Innovation System Through GMCL. In T. M. Herrmann (Ed.), Bridges Between Tradition and Innovation in Ethnomedicine: Fostering Local Development Through Community-Based Enterprises in India (pp. 121–143). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Consciousness and Cognition.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2017, March 13). Why Do Parents Live Longer Than Childless People? IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2003). No Child Left Behind Act: More Information Would Help States Determine Which Teachers Are Highly Qualified (GAO-03-631). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Murray, R. W. (2010). The Florida Migrant Education Program: An analysis of programmatic and expenditure practices [Doctoral dissertation]. Florida Atlantic University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J. (2016, September 15). Making, and Musing On, an Existential Classic. New York Times, C22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Haufe, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Bendor & Wang, 2005; Haufe, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bendor & Wang, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Abramson et al., 2012)
  • 6 or more authors: (Yoshida et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleConsciousness and Cognition
AbbreviationConscious. Cogn.
ISSN (print)1053-8100
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Developmental and Educational Psychology
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

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