How to format your references using the Consciousness and Cognition citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Consciousness and Cognition. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Friedman, M. (2009). Paleontology. Emerging onto a tangled bank. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5925), 341–342.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sundaram, J. K., & von Arnim, R. (2009). Economics. Trade liberalization and economic development. Science (New York, N.Y.), 323(5911), 211–212.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bertet, C., Sulak, L., & Lecuit, T. (2004). Myosin-dependent junction remodelling controls planar cell intercalation and axis elongation. Nature, 429(6992), 667–671.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Li, Z.-Y., Wang, Y.-Z., He, L.-M., & Zheng, H.-J. (2014). Metabolic profiles of prokaryotic and eukaryotic communities in deep-sea sponge Neamphius huxleyi [corrected]. indicated by metagenomics. Scientific Reports, 4, 3895.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sab, K., & Lebée, A. (2015). Homogenization of Heterogeneous Thin and Thick Plates. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Adler, S. S. (2008). PNF in Practice: An Illustrated Guide (D. Beckers & M. Buck, Eds.; Third edition). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Jones, E., & Ryan, M. (2015). The Dancer as Reflective Practitioner. In M. E. Ryan (Ed.), Teaching Reflective Learning in Higher Education: A Systematic Approach Using Pedagogic Patterns (pp. 51–64). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Consciousness and Cognition.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015, March 23). Rosetta’s Comet Is Slowing Down. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1989). Issues Related to FAA’s Effectiveness (T-RCED-89-39). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cummins, K. (2015). A Mixed Methods Study on The Leader in Me Process: How Does Fostering Student Leadership Capacity Influence Behavior, Efficacy, and Achievement? [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Branch, J. (2017, October 11). Cheers on a Soccer Field, Far From Las Vegas. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Friedman, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Friedman, 2009; Sundaram & von Arnim, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sundaram & von Arnim, 2009)
  • Three authors: (Bertet et al., 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Li et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleConsciousness and Cognition
AbbreviationConscious. Cogn.
ISSN (print)1053-8100
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Developmental and Educational Psychology
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

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