How to format your references using the Consciousness and Cognition citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Consciousness and Cognition. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ackland, G. J. (2015). MATERIALS SCIENCE. Bearing down on hydrogen. Science (New York, N.Y.), 348(6242), 1429–1430.
A journal article with 2 authors
Johnson, C. L., & Spence, A. M. (2011). Epigenetic licensing of germline gene expression by maternal RNA in C. elegans. Science (New York, N.Y.), 333(6047), 1311–1314.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kim, C., Xuong, N.-H., & Taylor, S. S. (2005). Crystal structure of a complex between the catalytic and regulatory (RIalpha) subunits of PKA. Science (New York, N.Y.), 307(5710), 690–696.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Bernards, D. A., Flores-Torres, S., Abruña, H. D., & Malliaras, G. G. (2006). Observation of electroluminescence and photovoltaic response in ionic junctions. Science (New York, N.Y.), 313(5792), 1416–1419.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Soprano, A. (2015). Liquidity Management. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Ploug, T., Hasle, P., & Oinas-Kukkonen, H. (Eds.). (2010). Persuasive Technology: 5th International Conference, PERSUASIVE 2010, Copenhagen, Denmark, June 7-10, 2010. Proceedings (Vol. 6137). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Grange, T., & Lourenço, E. E. (2011). Mechanisms of Epigenetic Gene Activation in Disease: Dynamics of DNA Methylation and Demethylation. In H. I. Roach, F. Bronner, & R. O. C. Oreffo (Eds.), Epigenetic Aspects of Chronic Diseases (pp. 55–73). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Consciousness and Cognition.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, June 4). Large Hadron Collider Is Back To Change Our Understanding Of The Universe … Again. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1986). [Question Concerning Protest Under Army IFB for Dependent School Transportation] (B-221710). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Baker, M. C. (2010). A descriptive study of the view from the top: Perspectives of experts in continuing medical education [Doctoral dissertation]. University of South Florida.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W. (2011, June 15). Shuttle’s End Leaves NASA A Pension Bill. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ackland, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Ackland, 2015; Johnson & Spence, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Johnson & Spence, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Kim et al., 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Bernards et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleConsciousness and Cognition
AbbreviationConscious. Cogn.
ISSN (print)1053-8100
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Developmental and Educational Psychology
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

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