How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Reliability citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Reliability. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. L. Brantley, “Geology. Understanding soil time,” Science, vol. 321, no. 5895, pp. 1454–1455, Sep. 2008.
A journal article with 2 authors
A. F. Siekmann and N. D. Lawson, “Notch signalling limits angiogenic cell behaviour in developing zebrafish arteries,” Nature, vol. 445, no. 7129, pp. 781–784, Feb. 2007.
A journal article with 3 authors
E. B. Ford, S. Seager, and E. L. Turner, “Characterization of extrasolar terrestrial planets from diurnal photometric variability,” Nature, vol. 412, no. 6850, pp. 885–887, Aug. 2001.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
B. F. Schaefer, S. Turner, I. Parkinson, N. Rogers, and C. Hawkesworth, “Evidence for recycled Archaean oceanic mantle lithosphere in the Azores plume,” Nature, vol. 420, no. 6913, pp. 304–307, Nov. 2002.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R. Schwartz, Rethinking Pragmatism. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012.
An edited book
U. M. Martens, Ed., Small Molecules in Oncology, vol. 184. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
L. S. Premo, “Mobility and Cultural Diversity in Central-Place Foragers: Implications for the Emergence of Modern Human Behavior,” in Learning Strategies and Cultural Evolution during the Palaeolithic, A. Mesoudi and K. Aoki, Eds. Tokyo: Springer Japan, 2015, pp. 45–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Reliability.

Blog post
A. Carpineti, “The Giant Rings Of An Exoplanet Are Spinning The Wrong Way Round,” IFLScience, 13-Oct-2016. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Preliminary Observations on the Potential Effects of the Proposed Performance Rights Act on the Recording and Broadcast Radio Industries,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-10-428R, Feb. 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S. D. Yaceczko, “A Telehealth Nutrition Manual for an Online Intensive Behavioral Weight Management Program,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Belson and M. Pilon, “Marathon Is Set to Go On, Stirring Debate,” New York Times, p. B11, 31-Oct-2012.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Reliability
ISSN (print)0018-9529
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality

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