How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Reliability citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Reliability. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
W. C. McGrew, “Dental care in chimps,” Science, vol. 288, no. 5472, p. 1747b, Jun. 2000.
A journal article with 2 authors
A. M. Geller and R. D. Mathieu, “A mass transfer origin for blue stragglers in NGC 188 as revealed by half-solar-mass companions,” Nature, vol. 478, no. 7369, pp. 356–359, Oct. 2011.
A journal article with 3 authors
J. Martinez-Mateo, D. Elkouss, and V. Martin, “Key reconciliation for high performance quantum key distribution,” Sci. Rep., vol. 3, p. 1576, 2013.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M. Bosman et al., “Encapsulated annealing: enhancing the plasmon quality factor in lithographically-defined nanostructures,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 5537, Jul. 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R. Brendel, Thin-Film Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2005.
An edited book
J. Nordling, J. J. Wyndaele, J. P. van de Merwe, P. Bouchelouche, M. Cervigni, and M. Fall, Eds., Bladder Pain Syndrome: A Guide for Clinicians. Boston, MA: Springer US, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
W. Lamersdorf, “Actual Paradigms of Distributed Software Development: Services and Self Organization,” in Software Services for e-World: 10th IFIP WG 6.11 Conference on e-Business, e-Services, and e-Society, I3E 2010, Buenos Aires, Argentina, November 3-5, 2010. Proceedings, W. Cellary and E. Estevez, Eds. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2010, pp. 4–4.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Reliability.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Joy To The World: An Ode To Outer Space At Christmas,” IFLScience, Dec. 19, 2014. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Telecommunications: Development of Competition in Local Telephone Markets,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, RCED-00-38, Jan. 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
L. A. Shore, “The anima in animation: Miyazaki heroines and post-patriarchal consciousness,” Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. W. Walsh, “Citing Storm, Puerto Rico Delays Plan,” New York Times, p. B5, Aug. 31, 2015.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Reliability
ISSN (print)0018-9529
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality

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