How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Reliability citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Reliability. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Q. Schiermeier, “Catalonian powerhouse,” Nature, vol. 454, no. 7201, pp. 248–249, Jul. 2008.
A journal article with 2 authors
S. Doulatov and G. Q. Daley, “Development. A stem cell perspective on cellular engineering,” Science, vol. 342, no. 6159, pp. 700–702, Nov. 2013.
A journal article with 3 authors
I. Ganguly-Fitzgerald, J. Donlea, and P. J. Shaw, “Waking experience affects sleep need in Drosophila,” Science, vol. 313, no. 5794, pp. 1775–1781, Sep. 2006.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S. Uemura, M. Dorywalska, T.-H. Lee, H. D. Kim, J. D. Puglisi, and S. Chu, “Peptide bond formation destabilizes Shine-Dalgarno interaction on the ribosome,” Nature, vol. 446, no. 7134, pp. 454–457, Mar. 2007.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A. DeMaris, Regression with Social Data: Modeling Continuous and Limited Response Variables. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2004.
An edited book
S. Balandin, Y. Koucheryavy, and H. Hu, Eds., Smart Spaces and Next Generation Wired/Wireless Networking: 11th International Conference, NEW2AN 2011, and 4th Conference on Smart Spaces, ruSMART 2011, St. Petersburg, Russia, August 22-25, 2011. Proceedings, vol. 6869. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
L. Ofak, “Application of the Aarhus Convention in Southeast Europe,” in Judicial Application of International Law in Southeast Europe, S. Rodin and T. Perišin, Eds. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2015, pp. 43–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Reliability.

Blog post
D. Andrew, “How We Solved The 1,000-Year-Old Mystery Of The Druze People’s Origin – With A Genetic Sat Nav,” IFLScience, Nov. 16, 2016. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Indoor Mold: Ongoing and Recently Completed Federal Research Activities (GAO-08-984SP, September 2008), an E-supplement to GAO-08-980,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-08-984SP, Sep. 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
P. A. Conner, “The STAR Math test as a predictor of Arkansas BenchmarkTest scores,” Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. K. Reinhart, “Perla Farias and David Portugal Jr,” New York Times, p. ST9, Jul. 11, 2010.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Reliability
ISSN (print)0018-9529
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality

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