How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Reliability citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Reliability. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. Schaffer, “The laird of physics,” Nature, vol. 471, no. 7338, pp. 289–291, Mar. 2011.
A journal article with 2 authors
M. A. Maslin and S. J. Burns, “Reconstruction of the Amazon Basin effective moisture availability over the past 14,000 years,” Science, vol. 290, no. 5500, pp. 2285–2287, Dec. 2000.
A journal article with 3 authors
L. Xing, X. Li, and W. D. Snider, “Neurodevelopment. ‘RASopathic’ astrocytes constrain neural plasticity,” Science, vol. 348, no. 6235, pp. 636–637, May 2015.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J. Eschner, C. Raab, F. Schmidt-Kaler, and R. Blatt, “Light interference from single atoms and their mirror images,” Nature, vol. 413, no. 6855, pp. 495–498, Oct. 2001.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Institute of Management and Administration (IOMA), Cost Reduction and Control Best Practices. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2012.
An edited book
B. Weller, The Definitive Guide to Google AdWords: Create Versatile and Powerful Marketing and Advertising Campaigns. Berkeley, CA: Apress, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
T. Kastrinogiannis et al., “Addressing Stability in Future Autonomic Networking,” in Mobile Networks and Management: Second International ICST Conference, MONAMI 2010, Santander, Spain, September 22-24, 2010, Revised Selected Papers, K. Pentikousis, R. Agüero, M. García-Arranz, and S. Papavassiliou, Eds. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2011, pp. 50–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Reliability.

Blog post
R. Andrews, “World’s First Robot Lawyer Helps 160,000 People Void Their Parking Tickets,” IFLScience, 29-Jun-2016. .


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Discretionary Grants: Education Needs to Improve Its Oversight of Grants Monitoring,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-17-266, Apr. 2017.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A. M. Roubin, “A resource manual of bullying intervention programs for parents, educators, and community officials in the Los Angeles area,” Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Kelly, “There’s No Politics In the Foxhole,” New York Times, p. A17, 18-Oct-2004.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Reliability
ISSN (print)0018-9529
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality

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