How to format your references using the IEEE/ACM Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE/ACM Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. A. Schwartz, “Cell biology. The force is with us,” Science, vol. 323, no. 5914, pp. 588–589, Jan. 2009.
A journal article with 2 authors
P. S. Ungar and M. Sponheimer, “The diets of early hominins,” Science, vol. 334, no. 6053, pp. 190–193, Oct. 2011.
A journal article with 3 authors
P. Libby, P. M. Ridker, and G. K. Hansson, “Progress and challenges in translating the biology of atherosclerosis,” Nature, vol. 473, no. 7347, pp. 317–325, May 2011.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
X. Zhang, J. Zhang, H. Liu, X. Su, and L. Wang, “Soft plasmons with stretchable spectroscopic response based on thermally patterned gold nanoparticles,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 4182, Feb. 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
G. Dimitriadis, Introduction to Nonlinear Aeroelasticity. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2017.
An edited book
M. de Rooij, K. Van Tittelboom, N. De Belie, and E. Schlangen, Eds., Self-Healing Phenomena in Cement-Based Materials: State-of-the-Art Report of RILEM Technical Committee 221-SHC: Self-Healing Phenomena in Cement-Based Materials, vol. 11. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
K. L. Flannigan and J. L. Wallace, “Hydrogen Sulfide: Its Production, Release and Functions,” in Hydrogen Sulfide and its Therapeutic Applications, H. Kimura, Ed. Vienna: Springer, 2013, pp. 109–125.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE/ACM Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Milky Way’s Black Hole Is Unusually ‘Chatty,’” IFLScience, Sep. 24, 2015. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Information Technology: Improvements for Acquisition of Customs Trade Processing System Continue, but Further Efforts Needed to Avoid More Cost and Schedule Shortfalls,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-08-46, Oct. 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
L. L. Wizda, “A case study of online peer coaching of consultant communication skill development,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
D. E. Sanger, M. Mazzetti, and B. Hubbard, “Errant Strike Impairs Effort to Calm Syria,” New York Times, p. A1, Sep. 19, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE/ACM Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing
AbbreviationIEEE ACM Trans. Audio Speech Lang. Process.
ISSN (print)2329-9290
ScopeSignal Processing
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Media Technology
Acoustics and Ultrasonics
Linguistics and Language
Speech and Hearing

Other styles