How to format your references using the IEEE/ACM Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE/ACM Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. Roll-Mecak, “Botany. Shining light at microtubule crossroads,” Science, vol. 342, no. 6163, pp. 1180–1181, Dec. 2013.
A journal article with 2 authors
M. J. Smyth and M. H. Kershaw, “Immunology. The adjuvant effects of antibodies,” Science, vol. 333, no. 6045, pp. 944–945, Aug. 2011.
A journal article with 3 authors
I. Bloch I., T. W. Hansch, and T. Esslinger, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of a trapped Bose gas at the phase transition,” Nature, vol. 403, no. 6766, pp. 166–170, Jan. 2000.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M. Block et al., “Direct mass measurements above uranium bridge the gap to the island of stability,” Nature, vol. 463, no. 7282, pp. 785–788, Feb. 2010.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R. Courant and E. J. McShane, Differential and Integral Calculus. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1988.
An edited book
Z. Zhang and S. S. Zhang, Eds., Rechargeable Batteries: Materials, Technologies and New Trends. in Green Energy and Technology. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Paschen and E. Dihsmaier, “Leadership, Challenge, and Perspective: How to Generate Leadership Strength Using Stimulating and Enticing Goals,” in The Psychology of Human Leadership: How To Develop Charisma and Authority, E. Dihsmaier, Ed., Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2014, pp. 109–123.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE/ACM Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing.

Blog post
J. Davis, “Risk Of Cancer Increases With Height,” IFLScience. Accessed: Oct. 30, 2018. [Online]. Available:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Highway Trust Fund: Nearly All States Received More Funding Than They Contributed in Highway Taxes Since 2005,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-10-780, Jun. 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. A. Grijalva, “Exploring cultural finance: A phenomenological approach to comparative cultural perceptions of money in Mexico,” Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Kanter, “Price-Fixing Inquiry Moves From BMW to Daimler and VW,” New York Times, p. B3, Oct. 23, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE/ACM Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing
AbbreviationIEEE ACM Trans. Audio Speech Lang. Process.
ISSN (print)2329-9290
ScopeSignal Processing
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Media Technology
Acoustics and Ultrasonics
Linguistics and Language
Speech and Hearing

Other styles