How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
W. D. Wilson, “Tech.Sight. Analyzing biomolecular interactions,” Science, vol. 295, no. 5562, pp. 2103–2105, Mar. 2002.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. G. Melnick and G. Parkin, “Cleaving mercury-alkyl bonds: a functional model for mercury detoxification by MerB,” Science, vol. 317, no. 5835, pp. 225–227, Jul. 2007.
A journal article with 3 authors
J. Linnerooth-Bayer, R. Mechler, and G. Pflug, “Refocusing disaster aid,” Science, vol. 309, no. 5737, pp. 1044–1046, Aug. 2005.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
C. Dong et al., “ICOS co-stimulatory receptor is essential for T-cell activation and function,” Nature, vol. 409, no. 6816, pp. 97–101, Jan. 2001.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Y. Motai Ph.D., Data-Variant Kernel Analysis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2015.
An edited book
D. Caine and L. Purcell, Eds., Injury in Pediatric and Adolescent Sports: Epidemiology, Treatment and Prevention, 1st ed. 2016. in Contemporary Pediatric and Adolescent Sports Medicine. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Y. Zhang and D. Guo, “Over-Determined and Under-Determined Systems of Time-Varying Linear Equations,” in Zhang Functions and Various Models, D. Guo, Ed., Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2015, pp. 61–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Watch This Ex-Circus Lion Feel Grass For The First Time,” IFLScience. Accessed: Oct. 30, 2018. [Online]. Available:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Social Security: Observations on Improving Distribution of Death Information,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-02-233T, Nov. 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M. H. Ashrafzadeh, “Provision of community services for the mentally challenged population in Iran,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Marx, “Michelle McGann and Jonathan Satter,” New York Times, p. ST10, Jun. 06, 2010.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell.
ISSN (print)0162-8828
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Computational Theory and Mathematics
Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
Applied Mathematics

Other styles