How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R. N. Clark, “Detection of adsorbed water and hydroxyl on the Moon,” Science, vol. 326, no. 5952, pp. 562–564, Oct. 2009.
A journal article with 2 authors
B. Minke and M. Peters, “Cell biology. Rhodopsin as thermosensor?,” Science, vol. 331, no. 6022, pp. 1272–1273, Mar. 2011.
A journal article with 3 authors
F. Frank, N. Sonenberg, and B. Nagar, “Structural basis for 5’-nucleotide base-specific recognition of guide RNA by human AGO2,” Nature, vol. 465, no. 7299, pp. 818–822, Jun. 2010.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S. Gossa, D. Nayak, B. H. Zinselmeyer, and D. B. McGavern, “Development of an immunologically tolerated combination of fluorescent proteins for in vivo two-photon imaging,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 6664, Oct. 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
AIChE Equipment Testing Procedure, Particle Size Classifiers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1993.
An edited book
A. Finn, N. Curtis, and A. J. Pollard, Eds., Hot Topics in Infection and Immunity in Children V, vol. 634. New York, NY: Springer US, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
A. Abel, “Semi-continuous Sized Types and Termination,” in Computer Science Logic: 20th International Workshop, CSL 2006, 15th Annual Conference of the EACSL, Szeged, Hungary, September 25-29, 2006. Proceedings, Z. Ésik, Ed. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2006, pp. 72–88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence.

Blog post
J. Fang, “Male Zebra Finches Without Moms Prefer Other Males As Mates,” IFLScience, Jun. 18, 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Intercity Passenger Rail: Financial Performance of Amtrak’s Routes,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, RCED-98-151, May 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
K. A. Monosky, “Perceived effectiveness and utility of various EMS credentials,” Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Vecsey, “U.S. Loss Reveals a Shrinking Talent Gap,” New York Times, p. B13, Nov. 09, 2010.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell.
ISSN (print)0162-8828
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Computational Theory and Mathematics
Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
Applied Mathematics

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