How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D. Normile, “AGRICULTURE: Variety Spices Up Chinese Rice Yields,” Science, vol. 289, no. 5482, pp. 1122b–3b, Aug. 2000.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. M. Birch and M. H. Dickinson, “Spanwise flow and the attachment of the leading-edge vortex on insect wings,” Nature, vol. 412, no. 6848, pp. 729–733, Aug. 2001.
A journal article with 3 authors
S. J. Royle, N. A. Bright, and L. Lagnado, “Clathrin is required for the function of the mitotic spindle,” Nature, vol. 434, no. 7037, pp. 1152–1157, Apr. 2005.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D. Frescas, D. Guardavaccaro, F. Bassermann, R. Koyama-Nasu, and M. Pagano, “JHDM1B/FBXL10 is a nucleolar protein that represses transcription of ribosomal RNA genes,” Nature, vol. 450, no. 7167, pp. 309–313, Nov. 2007.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
L. N. Edelstein and C. A. Waehler, What Do I Say? Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2011.
An edited book
C. A. Shoniregun, Securing Biometrics Applications. Boston, MA: Springer US, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
L. Aptekar and D. Stoecklin, “Research with Children in Street Situations,” in Street Children and Homeless Youth: A Cross-Cultural Perspective, D. Stoecklin, Ed. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2014, pp. 121–162.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Black Holes Prevent Star Formation In Some Galaxies By Acting Like Thermostats,” IFLScience, Aug. 10, 2015. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Financial Audit: District of Columbia Highway Trust Fund’s Fiscal Year 1997 Financial Statements,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, AIMD-98-254, Sep. 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R. S. Kalavacherla, “DFT study of the improved performance of oxygen reduction reaction on gold-copper alloy in a PEM fuel cell,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Feeney, “Filipino Fast Food to Linger Over,” New York Times, p. NJ6, Mar. 18, 2007.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell.
ISSN (print)0162-8828
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Computational Theory and Mathematics
Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
Applied Mathematics

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