How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
H. O. Sibum, “Beyond the ivory tower. What kind of science is experimental physics?,” Science, vol. 306, no. 5693, pp. 60–61, Oct. 2004.
A journal article with 2 authors
A. A. Zucker and D. Light, “Laptop programs for students,” Science, vol. 323, no. 5910, pp. 82–85, Jan. 2009.
A journal article with 3 authors
G. Volpe, G. Volpe, and S. Gigan, “Brownian motion in a speckle light field: tunable anomalous diffusion and selective optical manipulation,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 3936, Feb. 2014.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
X.-P. Dong et al., “The type IV mucolipidosis-associated protein TRPML1 is an endolysosomal iron release channel,” Nature, vol. 455, no. 7215, pp. 992–996, Oct. 2008.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
G. J. Bakus, Quantitative Analysis of Marine Biological Communities. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2007.
An edited book
K. Schwabe, J. Albiac, J. D. Connor, R. M. Hassan, and L. Meza González, Eds., Drought in Arid and Semi-Arid Regions: A Multi-Disciplinary and Cross-Country Perspective. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
K. Conrad, “Irreducible Values of Polynomials: A Non-Analogy,” in Number Fields and Function Fields—Two Parallel Worlds, G. van der Geer, B. Moonen, and R. Schoof, Eds., Boston, MA: Birkhäuser, 2005, pp. 71–85.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence.

Blog post
B. Taub, “Magnetic Stimulation To The Brain Can Make You More Horny,” IFLScience, Dec. 01, 2016. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Federal Capitation Support and Its Role in the Operation of Medical Schools,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, HRD-78-105, May 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
H. Ding, “Mode of Action for Hexavalent Chromium Carcinogenicity in Drinking Water,” Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Kelly, “THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: The Democrats; Clinton Accuses Bush of Dodging Responsibilities,” New York Times, p. A20, Jul. 30, 1992.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell.
ISSN (print)0162-8828
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Computational Theory and Mathematics
Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
Applied Mathematics

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