How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Kemp, “Science in culture: naturally natural. Albrecht Dürer’s studies of animals have a life of their own,” Nature, vol. 420, no. 6917, p. 744, 2002.
A journal article with 2 authors
H.-J. Jin and D. L. Kaplan, “Mechanism of silk processing in insects and spiders,” Nature, vol. 424, no. 6952, pp. 1057–1061, Aug. 2003.
A journal article with 3 authors
M. W. T. Talkington, G. Siuzdak, and J. R. Williamson, “An assembly landscape for the 30S ribosomal subunit,” Nature, vol. 438, no. 7068, pp. 628–632, Dec. 2005.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
K. Eggan et al., “Mice cloned from olfactory sensory neurons,” Nature, vol. 428, no. 6978, pp. 44–49, Mar. 2004.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Hanby, No God, No Science? Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2013.
An edited book
M. Fabian, Banach Space Theory: The Basis for Linear and Nonlinear Analysis. New York, NY: Springer, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
M. N. P. Santana and A. C. M. A. Melo, “Biological Sequence Comparison Application in Heterogeneous Environments with Dynamic Programming Algorithms,” in Advances in Bioinformatics and Computational Biology: Second Brazilian Symposium on Bioinformatics, BSB 2007, Angra dos Reis, Brazil, August 29-31, 2007. Proceedings, M.-F. Sagot and M. E. M. T. Walter, Eds. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2007, pp. 46–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Galactic ‘Hot-Dog-Eating Competition’ Lasts Hundreds Of Millions Of Years,” IFLScience, 26-May-2015. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Space Research: Content and Coordination of Space Science and Technology Strategy Need to Be More Robust,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-11-722, Jul. 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
L. L. Gallegos, “Spatiotemporal regulation of protein kinase C signaling: Control of normal cellular dynamics and mis-regulation in cancer,” Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
C. Kelly, “It’s Not Billions, But It Can Help Rescue an Artist,” New York Times, p. BU1, 03-Jun-2012.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell.
ISSN (print)0162-8828
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Computational Theory and Mathematics
Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
Applied Mathematics

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