How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. E. Kideys, “Ecology. Fall and rise of the Black Sea ecosystem,” Science, vol. 297, no. 5586, pp. 1482–1484, Aug. 2002.
A journal article with 2 authors
H. Abrahamsen and H. Stenmark, “Cell biology. Growth signaling from inside,” Science, vol. 334, no. 6056, pp. 611–612, Nov. 2011.
A journal article with 3 authors
U. P. Davé, N. A. Jenkins, and N. G. Copeland, “Gene therapy insertional mutagenesis insights,” Science, vol. 303, no. 5656, p. 333, Jan. 2004.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
K. F. Dong, H. H. Li, Y. G. Peng, G. Ju, G. M. Chow, and J. S. Chen, “Nanogranular TiN-ZrO₂ intermediate layer induced improvement of isolation and grain size of FePt thin films,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 5607, Jul. 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Zink, Scalable Video on Demand. West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd,., 2005.
An edited book
B. Glimm and A. Krüger, Eds., KI 2012: Advances in Artificial Intelligence: 35th Annual German Conference on AI, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 24-27, 2012. Proceedings, vol. 7526. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
C. Guillot, M. Taron, P. Sayd, Q. C. Pham, C. Tilmant, and J. M. Lavest, “Background Subtraction for PTZ Cameras Performing a Guard Tour and Application to Cameras with Very Low Frame Rate,” in Computer Vision – ACCV 2010 Workshops: ACCV 2010 International Workshops, Queenstown, New Zealand, November 8-9, 2010, Revised Selected Papers, Part I, R. Koch and F. Huang, Eds. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2011, pp. 33–42.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Plumes Of Enceladus Revealed In Incredible Cassini Flyby Images,” IFLScience, Oct. 30, 2015. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Airport and Airway Trust Fund: Issues Related to Determining How Best to Finance FAA,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, T-RCED-97-59, Feb. 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
B. Hilker, “Electric-field effects and interactions of dye-polymer systems,” Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Cooper, “Come Hell or High Water,” New York Times, p. C1, Jul. 07, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Neural Syst. Rehabil. Eng.
ISSN (print)1534-4320
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Biomedical Engineering
General Neuroscience

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