How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R. A. Diehl, “Archaeology. Patterns of cultural primacy,” Science, vol. 307, no. 5712, pp. 1055–1056, Feb. 2005.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. D. West and C. T. Bergstrom, “Psychology. Can ignorance promote democracy?,” Science, vol. 334, no. 6062, pp. 1503–1504, Dec. 2011.
A journal article with 3 authors
G. Fiorin, V. Carnevale, and W. F. DeGrado, “Structural biology. The flu’s proton escort,” Science, vol. 330, no. 6003, pp. 456–458, Oct. 2010.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
O. Krause et al., “Tycho Brahe’s 1572 supernova as a standard type Ia as revealed by its light-echo spectrum,” Nature, vol. 456, no. 7222, pp. 617–619, Dec. 2008.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R. M. Heiberger, Computation for the Analysis of Designed Experiments. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2015.
An edited book
R. A. Varin, Nanomaterials for Solid State Hydrogen Storage. Boston, MA: Springer US, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
J. E. Purcell, E. Clarkin, and T. K. Doyle, “Foods of Velella velella (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) in algal rafts and its distribution in Irish seas,” in Jellyfish Blooms IV: Interactions with humans and fisheries, J. Purcell, H. Mianzan, and J. R. Frost, Eds. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2012, pp. 47–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “New Invisibility Cloak Completely Conceals Objects,” IFLScience, Nov. 13, 2013. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Aviation Security: Significant Management Challenges May Adversely Affect Implementation of the Transportation Security Administration’s Secure Flight Program,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-06-374T, Feb. 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R. A. Marquez, “Examining coping skills used to deal with daily stressors of law enforcement,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Wagner, “Mets Add Familia To Long List Of Injured,” New York Times, p. B13, May 11, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Neural Syst. Rehabil. Eng.
ISSN (print)1534-4320
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Biomedical Engineering
General Neuroscience

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