How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
E. Sohn, “Israel: Research without prejudice,” Nature, vol. 525, no. 7570, pp. S12-3, Sep. 2015.
A journal article with 2 authors
P. J. Chirik and K. Wieghardt, “Chemistry. Radical ligands confer nobility on base-metal catalysts,” Science, vol. 327, no. 5967, pp. 794–795, Feb. 2010.
A journal article with 3 authors
I. A. G. Snellen, E. J. W. de Mooij, and S. Albrecht, “The changing phases of extrasolar planet CoRoT-1b,” Nature, vol. 459, no. 7246, pp. 543–545, May 2009.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J.-U. Rohde et al., “Crystallographic and spectroscopic characterization of a nonheme Fe(IV)-O complex,” Science, vol. 299, no. 5609, pp. 1037–1039, Feb. 2003.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
H. J. Kupka, Transitions in Molecular Systems. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2010.
An edited book
M. Sonza Reorda, Z. Peng, and M. Violante, Eds., System-level Test and Validation of Hardware/Software Systems, vol. 17. London: Springer, 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
A. Steiner, “Agroforestry and the Transition to the Future,” in Agroforestry - The Future of Global Land Use, P. K. R. Nair and D. Garrity, Eds. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2012, pp. 17–20.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Costa Rica Has Only Used Renewable Energy For Electricity This Year,” IFLScience, Mar. 24, 2015. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “A Profile of Selected Firms Awarded Small Business Innovation Research Funds,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, RCED-86-113FS, Mar. 1986.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C. Savvas, “Hydroclimate variability and landuse effects on nutrient export from watersheds in the mid-Atlantic United States,” Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. R. Oestreich, “Lamenting Dead Kings, Spending Sunday at the Pub,” New York Times, p. C6, Jan. 13, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Neural Syst. Rehabil. Eng.
ISSN (print)1534-4320
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Biomedical Engineering
General Neuroscience

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