How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
T. de Lange, “How telomeres solve the end-protection problem,” Science, vol. 326, no. 5955, pp. 948–952, Nov. 2009.
A journal article with 2 authors
A. Regev and E. Shapiro, “Cells as computation,” Nature, vol. 419, no. 6905, p. 343, Sep. 2002.
A journal article with 3 authors
M. S. Hill, P. B. Hitchcock, and R. Pongtavornpinyo, “A linear homocatenated compound containing six indium centers,” Science, vol. 311, no. 5769, pp. 1904–1907, Mar. 2006.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. Martínez-Sansigre et al., “The obscuration by dust of most of the growth of supermassive black holes,” Nature, vol. 436, no. 7051, pp. 666–669, Aug. 2005.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
V. Räisänen, Service Modelling. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2006.
An edited book
M. Ali Babar, M. Vierimaa, and M. Oivo, Eds., Product-Focused Software Process Improvement: 11th International Conference, PROFES 2010, Limerick, Ireland, June 21-23, 2010. Proceedings, vol. 6156. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
E. Joselevich, H. Dai, J. Liu, K. Hata, and A. H. Windle, “Carbon Nanotube Synthesis and Organization,” in Carbon Nanotubes: Advanced Topics in the Synthesis, Structure, Properties and Applications, A. Jorio, G. Dresselhaus, and M. S. Dresselhaus, Eds. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2008, pp. 101–165.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering.

Blog post
B. Taub, “Neanderthals Made Jewelry, New Study Confirms,” IFLScience, 20-Sep-2016. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “NASA: Compliance with Cost Limits,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-04-648R, Apr. 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M. Tromp, “Bayesian monitoring of clinical trials: Examples using conjugate priors,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Billard, “Sky’s the Limit: Yogis Head Outdoors,” New York Times, p. MB1, 19-Jun-2011.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Neural Syst. Rehabil. Eng.
ISSN (print)1534-4320
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Biomedical Engineering
General Neuroscience

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