How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
E. Vlieg, “Materials science. Complexity from simplicity,” Science, vol. 340, no. 6134, pp. 822–823, May 2013.
A journal article with 2 authors
R. Hueso and A. Sánchez-Lavega, “Methane storms on Saturn’s moon Titan,” Nature, vol. 442, no. 7101, pp. 428–431, Jul. 2006.
A journal article with 3 authors
J. Mossinger, M. White, and P. Goymer, “Coastal regions,” Nature, vol. 504, no. 7478, p. 35, Dec. 2013.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
E. Kunze, J. F. Dower, I. Beveridge, R. Dewey, and K. P. Bartlett, “Observations of biologically generated turbulence in a coastal inlet,” Science, vol. 313, no. 5794, pp. 1768–1770, Sep. 2006.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J. Smith and R. Roberts, Vital Signs for Nurses. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2015.
An edited book
R. A. Schmidt, Ed., Relations and Kleene Algebra in Computer Science: 9th International Conference on Relational Methods in Computer Science and 4th International Workshop on Applications of Kleene Algebra, RelMiCS/AKA 2006, Manchester, UK, August 29–September 2, 2006. Proceedings, vol. 4136. in Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 4136. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
G. Moens and J. Trone, “Free Movement of Capital,” in Commercial Law of the European Union, J. Trone, Ed., Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2010, pp. 131–147.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Vaccine Provides Broad Protection Against The Flu In Mice,” IFLScience. Accessed: Oct. 30, 2018. [Online]. Available:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Federal Research and Development Budget,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 094379, Apr. 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M. D. Sidwell, “Indirect measures as predictors of social skills observed through means of direct observation,” Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Feeney, “Potpies You Can Pocket,” New York Times, p. NJ7, Mar. 15, 2009.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Neural Syst. Rehabil. Eng.
ISSN (print)1534-4320
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Biomedical Engineering
General Neuroscience

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