How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
T. Tokano, “Planetary science. Precipitation climatology on Titan,” Science, vol. 331, no. 6023, pp. 1393–1394, Mar. 2011.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. K. Rilling and L. J. Young, “The biology of mammalian parenting and its effect on offspring social development,” Science, vol. 345, no. 6198, pp. 771–776, Aug. 2014.
A journal article with 3 authors
G. Zabow, S. J. Dodd, and A. P. Koretsky, “Shape-changing magnetic assemblies as high-sensitivity NMR-readable nanoprobes,” Nature, vol. 520, no. 7545, pp. 73–77, Apr. 2015.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
F. F. R. Damanik, T. C. Rothuizen, C. van Blitterswijk, J. I. Rotmans, and L. Moroni, “Towards an in vitro model mimicking the foreign body response: tailoring the surface properties of biomaterials to modulate extracellular matrix,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 6325, Sep. 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R. Hickey, A Dictionary of Varieties of English. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2013.
An edited book
P. Brusilovsky, A. Kobsa, and W. Nejdl, Eds., The Adaptive Web: Methods and Strategies of Web Personalization, vol. 4321. in Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 4321. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Lewis and F. Souki, “The Anesthetic Implications of Opioid Addiction,” in Perioperative Addiction: Clinical Management of the Addicted Patient, E. O. Bryson and E. A. M. Frost, Eds., New York, NY: Springer, 2012, pp. 73–93.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Doomed Russian Spacecraft Will Re-Enter Earth’s Atmosphere On May 8th,” IFLScience, May 07, 2015. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Digital Television Transition: Implementation of the Converter Box Subsidy Program Is Under Way, but Preparedness to Manage an Increase in Subsidy Demand Is Unclear,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-08-1040, Sep. 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
V. K. Chellamuthu, “Structured Population Models: Numerical Methods and Application to Frogs Infected with Chytridiomycosis,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Saslow, “Nassau Comptroller Warns County on Finances,” New York Times, p. LI2, Mar. 11, 2007.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Neural Syst. Rehabil. Eng.
ISSN (print)1534-4320
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Biomedical Engineering
General Neuroscience

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