How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
K. Miyamoto, “Structural model of ubiquitin transfer onto an artificial RING finger as an E3 ligase,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 6574, Oct. 2014.
A journal article with 2 authors
R. D. Phair and T. Misteli, “High mobility of proteins in the mammalian cell nucleus,” Nature, vol. 404, no. 6778, pp. 604–609, Apr. 2000.
A journal article with 3 authors
A. G. Prajeesh, K. Ashok, and D. V. B. Rao, “Falling monsoon depression frequency: a Gray-Sikka conditions perspective,” Sci. Rep., vol. 3, p. 2989, Oct. 2013.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M. J. Buckley et al., “Dissociable components of rule-guided behavior depend on distinct medial and prefrontal regions,” Science, vol. 325, no. 5936, pp. 52–58, Jul. 2009.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Yavaş, Applied English Phonology. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011.
An edited book
S. Antontsev, Evolution PDEs with Nonstandard Growth Conditions: Existence, Uniqueness, Localization, Blow-up, vol. 4. Paris: Atlantis Press, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
J. V. Nadler and D. D. Spencer, “What Is a Seizure Focus?,” in Issues in Clinical Epileptology: A View from the Bench, H. E. Scharfman and P. S. Buckmaster, Eds. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2014, pp. 55–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering.

Blog post
J. Fang, “Fully Implantable Artificial Pancreas Delivers Insulin as Needed,” IFLScience, Jul. 03, 2015. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “NASA: Status of Achieving Key Outcomes and Addressing Major Management Challenges,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-01-868, Jul. 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
N. McCoy, “Functionality Evaluation of the Wave Suppressor and Sediment Collection (WSSC) System: Wave Reduction, Sediment Collection, Mathematical Model, and Preliminary Field Evaluation,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
M. E. Díaz and W. Neuman, “U.S. Filmmaker Held in Venezuela Sought to Show Political Divide, Friends Say,” New York Times, p. A9, Apr. 27, 2013.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng.
ISSN (print)1041-4347
ScopeComputational Theory and Mathematics
Computer Science Applications
Information Systems

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