How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. A. Hamburg, “Science and regulation. FDA’s approach to regulation of products of nanotechnology,” Science, vol. 336, no. 6079, pp. 299–300, Apr. 2012.
A journal article with 2 authors
D. L. K. Toner and R. Grima, “Effects of bursty protein production on the noisy oscillatory properties of downstream pathways,” Sci. Rep., vol. 3, p. 2438, 2013.
A journal article with 3 authors
S. Sainsbury, J. Niesser, and P. Cramer, “Structure and function of the initially transcribing RNA polymerase II-TFIIB complex,” Nature, vol. 493, no. 7432, pp. 437–440, Jan. 2013.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
C. Haag-Liautard et al., “Direct estimation of per nucleotide and genomic deleterious mutation rates in Drosophila,” Nature, vol. 445, no. 7123, pp. 82–85, Jan. 2007.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
S. Snape, Ancient Egyptian Tombs. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011.
An edited book
J. Farré, I. Litovsky, and S. Schmitz, Eds., Implementation and Application of Automata: 10th International Conference, CIAA 2005, Sophia Antipolis, France, June 27-29, 2005, Revised Selected Papers, vol. 3845. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
J. A. Ledermann and F. A. Raja, “Mucinous Cancers: Ovary,” in Rare and Uncommon Gynecological Cancers: A Clinical Guide, N. Reed, J. A. Green, D. M. Gershenson, N. Siddiqui, and R. Connor, Eds. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2011, pp. 67–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Witness A Deaf Woman Hear For The First Time,” IFLScience, 28-Mar-2014. .


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Intellectual Property: Patent Examination and Copyright Office Issues,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, T-RCED/GGD-96-230, Sep. 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
L. M. Robinson, “Using Time-Resolved Photoluminescence Spectroscopy to Examine Exciton Dynamics in II-VI Semiconductor Nanostructures,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, 2001.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Shpigel, “Mountain Time For the Texans,” New York Times, p. D1, 10-Aug-2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng.
ISSN (print)1041-4347
ScopeComputational Theory and Mathematics
Computer Science Applications
Information Systems

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