How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. M. DeSimone, “Practical approaches to green solvents,” Science, vol. 297, no. 5582, pp. 799–803, Aug. 2002.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. N. Druckman and A. Lupia, “Social science. Experimenting with politics,” Science, vol. 335, no. 6073, pp. 1177–1179, Mar. 2012.
A journal article with 3 authors
C. Fan, J. Li, and L. Wang, “Phase transitions, mechanical properties and electronic structures of novel boron phases under high-pressure: a first-principles study,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 6786, Oct. 2014.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D. A. Garsin et al., “Long-lived C. elegans daf-2 mutants are resistant to bacterial pathogens,” Science, vol. 300, no. 5627, p. 1921, Jun. 2003.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
S. Wartewig, IR and Raman Spectroscopy. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2005.
An edited book
I. Nesteruk, Ed., Supercavitation: Advances and Perspectives A collection dedicated to the 70th jubilee of Yu.N. Savchenko. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
C. R. Boër, P. Pedrazzoli, A. Bettoni, and M. Sorlini, “Assessment of Sustainable MC Production in a Selected Test Case,” in Mass Customization and Sustainability: An assessment framework and industrial implementation, P. Pedrazzoli, A. Bettoni, and M. Sorlini, Eds. London: Springer, 2013, pp. 143–167.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering.

Blog post
J. Fang, “How Do You Test The Multiverse? With Bubbles,” IFLScience, 18-Jul-2014. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Consumer Health Informatics: Emerging Issues,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, T-AIMD-96-134, Jul. 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Y. Mikhailik, “Longing Limned,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Paulson, “Tomorrow’s Marquee Names,” New York Times, p. AR26, 06-Sep-2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng.
ISSN (print)1041-4347
ScopeComputational Theory and Mathematics
Computer Science Applications
Information Systems

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