How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
H. Ploegh, “End the wasteful tyranny of reviewer experiments,” Nature, vol. 472, no. 7344, p. 391, Apr. 2011.
A journal article with 2 authors
B. J. Wood and A. N. Halliday, “Cooling of the Earth and core formation after the giant impact,” Nature, vol. 437, no. 7063, pp. 1345–1348, Oct. 2005.
A journal article with 3 authors
J. C. Juanes-Marcos, S. C. Althorpe, and E. Wrede, “Theoretical study of geometric phase effects in the hydrogen-exchange reaction,” Science, vol. 309, no. 5738, pp. 1227–1230, Aug. 2005.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
H. Cui et al., “An evolutionarily conserved mechanism delimiting SHR movement defines a single layer of endodermis in plants,” Science, vol. 316, no. 5823, pp. 421–425, Apr. 2007.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
O. Vanbésien, Artificial Materials. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2012.
An edited book
R. Dörner, S. Göbel, M. Kickmeier-Rust, M. Masuch, and K. Zweig, Eds., Entertainment Computing and Serious Games: International GI-Dagstuhl Seminar 15283, Dagstuhl Castle, Germany, July 5-10, 2015, Revised Selected Papers, vol. 9970. in Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 9970. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
C.-J. Chiu, “Cultivating a Humanistic Mind: A View from Taiwan,” in The Humanities in Contemporary Chinese Contexts, E. T. Y. Chan and M. O’Sullivan, Eds., in The Humanities in Asia. , Singapore: Springer, 2016, pp. 57–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Primitive Meteorites Brought Water To Early Earth,” IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “What Is the Role of Federal Assistance for Vocational Education?,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, MWD-75-31, Dec. 1974.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Y. Ma, “Vesicular Stomatitis Virus as a Vector to Deliver Virus-Like Particles of Human Norovirus: A New Live Vectored Vaccine for Human Norovirus,” Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Appelbaum and K. Kelly, “Trump Is Said to Pick 2 To Serve on Fed Board,” New York Times, p. B3, Jun. 02, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng.
ISSN (print)1041-4347
ScopeComputational Theory and Mathematics
Computer Science Applications
Information Systems

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