How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P. Smaglik, “The waiting game,” Nature, vol. 428, no. 6979, p. 235, Mar. 2004.
A journal article with 2 authors
F. Lambolez and B. Rocha, “Immunology. A molecular gut reaction,” Science, vol. 294, no. 5548, pp. 1848–1849, Nov. 2001.
A journal article with 3 authors
M. Niemeier, J. D. Crawford, and D. B. Tweed, “Optimal transsaccadic integration explains distorted spatial perception,” Nature, vol. 422, no. 6927, pp. 76–80, Mar. 2003.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
W. de Vries et al., “Ecologically implausible carbon response?,” Nature, vol. 451, no. 7180, pp. E1-3; discussion E3-4, Feb. 2008.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
I. Horton, Ivor Horton’s Beginning Visual C++® 2012. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2012.
An edited book
K. Ikeda, Imperfect Bifurcation in Structures and Materials: Engineering Use of Group-Theoretic Bifurcation Theory, vol. 149. New York, NY: Springer, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
S. Loue, “Migration and Mental Health,” in Determinants of Minority Mental Health and Wellness, S. Loue and M. Sajatovic, Eds. New York, NY: Springer, 2009, pp. 1–16.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering.

Blog post
T. Hale, “France Leads The Way With World’s First Solar Panel Road,” IFLScience, Dec. 23, 2016. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Federal Oversight of State Medicaid Management Information Systems Could Be Further Improved,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, HRD-82-99, Jul. 1982.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A. E. Cummings, “Brain and behavior in children with phonological delays: Phonological, lexical, and sensory system interactions,” Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Schwirtz, “Two Ex-Correction Officials Deny Clearing Trips to Maine,” New York Times, p. A19, May 08, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng.
ISSN (print)1041-4347
ScopeComputational Theory and Mathematics
Computer Science Applications
Information Systems

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