How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. Tyagi, “Genomics. E. coli, what a noisy bug,” Science, vol. 329, no. 5991, pp. 518–519, Jul. 2010.
A journal article with 2 authors
C. A. Worby and J. E. Dixon, “Microbiology. Bacteria seize control by acetylating host proteins,” Science, vol. 312, no. 5777, pp. 1150–1151, May 2006.
A journal article with 3 authors
S. K. Wootton, C. L. Halbert, and A. D. Miller, “Sheep retrovirus structural protein induces lung tumours,” Nature, vol. 434, no. 7035, pp. 904–907, Apr. 2005.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
L. Gross, F. Mohn, N. Moll, P. Liljeroth, and G. Meyer, “The chemical structure of a molecule resolved by atomic force microscopy,” Science, vol. 325, no. 5944, pp. 1110–1114, Aug. 2009.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R. Todeschini and A. Baccini, Handbook of Bibliometric Indicators. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2016.
An edited book
A. Carbone and N. A. Pierce, Eds., DNA Computing: 11th International Workshop on DNA Computing, DNA11, London, ON, Canada, June 6-9, 2005. Revised Selected Papers, vol. 3892. in Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 3892. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
V. J. Coles and R. R. Hood, “Approaches and Challenges for Linking Marine Biogeochemical Models with the ‘Omics’ Revolution,” in Aquatic Microbial Ecology and Biogeochemistry: A Dual Perspective, P. M. Glibert and T. M. Kana, Eds., Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016, pp. 45–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Polar bear cub at Toronto Zoo takes his first steps,” IFLScience, Jan. 13, 2014. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Programs for Land-Grant Schools,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, HEHS-96-91R, Mar. 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R. A. Dasari, “Automatic driving system by recognizing road signs using digital image processing,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Hubbard, “Powerful or Offensive? Ramadan Ad Depicting Would-Be Terrorist Proves Divisive,” New York Times, p. A9, May 30, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng.
ISSN (print)1041-4347
ScopeComputational Theory and Mathematics
Computer Science Applications
Information Systems

Other styles