How to format your references using the Biologics in Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biologics in Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Travesset A. Materials science. Self-assembly enters the design era. Science. 2011;334:183–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Blazes DL, Russell KL. Medicine in war and peace: joining forces. Nature. 2011;477:395–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Li Y, Yi M, Zou X. The linear interplay of intrinsic and extrinsic noises ensures a high accuracy of cell fate selection in budding yeast. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5764.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Frey GD, Lavallo V, Donnadieu B, Schoeller WW, Bertrand G. Facile splitting of hydrogen and ammonia by nucleophilic activation at a single carbon center. Science. 2007;316:439–41.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Morris AS. ISO 14000 Environmental Management Standards. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
1. Di Giuseppe A, Shiffman MA, editors. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery of the Abdomen. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Scher CS, Chui I, Miller SM. General Principles of Intraoperative Management of the Severe Blunt or Polytrauma Patient: The Resuscitative Phase. In: Scher CS, editor. Anesthesia for Trauma: New Evidence and New Challenges. New York, NY: Springer; 2014. p. 81–105.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biologics in Therapy.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Engineered Cartilage to Reconstruct Damaged Noses [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Social Security Administration: Information Technology Challenges Facing the Commissioner. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998 Mar. Report No.: T-AIMD-98-109.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Graves KA. An Exploration of Organizational Commitment among Generation X Leaders [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Cooper M. A Toothy Strongman Gets a Role at the Met Opera. New York Times. 2017 May 19;C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiologics in Therapy
AbbreviationBiol. Ther.
ISSN (print)2195-5840
ISSN (online)2190-9164

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