How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Information Theory citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Information Theory. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
B. J. Hoskins, “Atmospheric science. Climate change at cruising altitude?,” Science, vol. 301, no. 5632, pp. 469–470, Jul. 2003.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. A. Langley and J. P. Megonigal, “Ecosystem response to elevated CO(2) levels limited by nitrogen-induced plant species shift,” Nature, vol. 466, no. 7302, pp. 96–99, Jul. 2010.
A journal article with 3 authors
J. Chow, R. J. Kopp, and P. R. Portney, “Energy resources and global development,” Science, vol. 302, no. 5650, pp. 1528–1531, Nov. 2003.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M. Haimerl et al., “MRI-based estimation of liver function: Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced T1 relaxometry of 3T vs. the MELD score,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 5621, Jul. 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. L. Ferrari, U. M. Damo, A. Turan, and D. Sánchez, Hybrid Systems Based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2017.
An edited book
M. Mandea and M. Korte, Eds., Geomagnetic Observations and Models, vol. 5. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
S.-B. Ong, “Imaging of Mitochondrial Disorders: A Review,” in Advances in Medical Diagnostic Technology, Y. C. Hum, M. I. Mohamad Salim, S.-B. Ong, N. P. Utama, Y. M. Myint, N. Mohd Noor, and E. Supriyanto, Eds. Singapore: Springer, 2014, pp. 99–136.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Information Theory.

Blog post
T. Hale, “Traces Of Color Have Been Found On 130-Million-Year-Old Fossilized Bird Feathers,” IFLScience, Nov. 23, 2016. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Head Start: Increased Percentage of Teachers Nationwide Have Required Degrees, but Better Information on Classroom Teachers’ Qualifications Needed,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-04-5, Oct. 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D. Ahlert, “Application of Graph Theoretic Clustering on Some Biomedical Data Sets,” Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Paulson, “How ‘Great Comet’ Burned Out,” New York Times, p. C1, Aug. 29, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Information Theory
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Inf. Theory
ISSN (print)0018-9448
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Information Systems
Library and Information Sciences

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