How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Information Theory citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Information Theory. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. Trewavas, “Malthus foiled again and again,” Nature, vol. 418, no. 6898, pp. 668–670, Aug. 2002.
A journal article with 2 authors
L. Long and H. Ye, “How to be smart and energy efficient: a general discussion on thermochromic windows,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 6427, Sep. 2014.
A journal article with 3 authors
P. N. Pearson, G. L. Foster, and B. S. Wade, “Atmospheric carbon dioxide through the Eocene-Oligocene climate transition,” Nature, vol. 461, no. 7267, pp. 1110–1113, Oct. 2009.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. Usiello et al., “Distinct functions of the two isoforms of dopamine D2 receptors,” Nature, vol. 408, no. 6809, pp. 199–203, Nov. 2000.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D. Zelterman, Discrete Distributions: Applications in the Health Sciences. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2005.
An edited book
S. Ingrassia, R. Rocci, and M. Vichi, Eds., New Perspectives in Statistical Modeling and Data Analysis: Proceedings of the 7th Conference of the Classification and Data Analysis Group of the Italian Statistical Society, Catania, September 9 - 11, 2009. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
S. J. Klees, “World Bank and Education,” in The World Bank and Education: Critiques and Alternatives, S. J. Klees, J. Samoff, and N. P. Stromquist, Eds. Rotterdam: SensePublishers, 2012, pp. 49–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Information Theory.

Blog post
R. Andrews, “We Now Know What Earth’s Inner Core Is Made Of,” IFLScience, Jan. 10, 2017. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Commercial Aviation: Bankruptcy and Pension Problems Are Symptoms of Underlying Structural Issues,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-05-945, Sep. 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. J. Long, “Comparison of health-promoting lifestyles in adult patients with and without primary care provider continuity,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Carlson, “First the Proposal, Then Remodeling,” New York Times, p. ST6, Oct. 12, 2012.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Information Theory
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Inf. Theory
ISSN (print)0018-9448
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Information Systems
Library and Information Sciences

Other styles