How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Information Theory citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Information Theory. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D. C. Catling, “Comment on ‘A hydrogen-rich early Earth atmosphere,’” Science, vol. 311, no. 5757, pp. 38; author reply 38, Jan. 2006.
A journal article with 2 authors
B. R. Greening and N. H. Fefferman, “Evolutionary significance of the role of family units in a broader social system,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 3608, Jan. 2014.
A journal article with 3 authors
B. Munsky, G. Neuert, and A. van Oudenaarden, “Using gene expression noise to understand gene regulation,” Science, vol. 336, no. 6078, pp. 183–187, Apr. 2012.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D. Gomez-Nicola, K. Riecken, B. Fehse, and V. H. Perry, “In-vivo RGB marking and multicolour single-cell tracking in the adult brain,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 7520, Dec. 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A. M. Shelby and C. M. McKune, Small Animal Anesthesia Techniques. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2014.
An edited book
P. K. Mishra and K. L. Kuhlman, Eds., Advances in Hydrogeology. New York, NY: Springer, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
M. B. MacDonald, “Critical Pedagogy of Listening,” in Remix and Life Hack in Hip Hop: Towards a Critical Pedagogy of Music, M. B. MacDonald, Ed. Rotterdam: SensePublishers, 2016, pp. 41–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Information Theory.

Blog post
J. Fang, “New Magnetic Shield Protects Next-Generation Physics Experiments,” IFLScience, May 17, 2015. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “[Comments on the Federal Communications Commission’s Implementation of Section 254(h) of the Communications Act of 1934],” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, B-278820, Feb. 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
G. A. Archibald, “Regionalizing competitive talent: An exploratory study of the role of human capital management in the context of economic integration and labor mobility,” Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, Minneapolis, MN, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
J. Williams, “TV, Pre-Golden Age,” New York Times, p. BR6, Sep. 08, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Information Theory
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Inf. Theory
ISSN (print)0018-9448
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Information Systems
Library and Information Sciences

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