How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Information Theory citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Information Theory. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. A. Rice, “Interfering for the good of a chemical reaction,” Nature, vol. 409, no. 6818, pp. 422–426, Jan. 2001.
A journal article with 2 authors
R. Barkana and A. Loeb, “Spectral signature of cosmological infall of gas around the first quasars,” Nature, vol. 421, no. 6921, pp. 341–343, Jan. 2003.
A journal article with 3 authors
R. H. Karlson, H. V. Cornell, and T. P. Hughes, “Coral communities are regionally enriched along an oceanic biodiversity gradient,” Nature, vol. 429, no. 6994, pp. 867–870, Jun. 2004.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
P. Luan, M. Xie, D. Liu, X. Fu, and L. Jing, “Effective charge separation in the rutile TiO2 nanorod-coupled α-Fe2O3 with exceptionally high visible activities,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 6180, Aug. 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
N. F. Sharpe and R. F. Carter, Genetic Testing. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2005.
An edited book
L. Bruszt and R. Holzhacker, Eds., The Transnationalization of Economies, States, and Civil Societies: New Challenges for Governance in Europe, 1st ed. New York, NY: Springer US, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
A. B. Steensma, “The Central and Posterior Compartments,” in Atlas of Pelvic Floor Ultrasound, L. P. J. Hoyte and A. B. Steensma, Eds. London: Springer, 2008, pp. 63–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Information Theory.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Could basic life exist on Titan?,” IFLScience, 24-Oct-2013. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Transportation Services: Better Dissemination and Oversight of DOT’s Guidance Could Lead to Improved Access for Limited English-Proficient Populations (Spanish Version),” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-06-185, Nov. 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R. Villanueva, “Issues of performance practice: The influence of Franz Strauss upon Richard Strauss’s Horn Concerto No. 1,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Wagner, “Colon, After 3 Seasons With Mets, Agrees to Join Braves,” New York Times, p. D2, 11-Nov-2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Information Theory
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Inf. Theory
ISSN (print)0018-9448
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Information Systems
Library and Information Sciences

Other styles