How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Information Theory citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Information Theory. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
N. Ellemers, “The group self,” Science, vol. 336, no. 6083, pp. 848–852, May 2012.
A journal article with 2 authors
D. Dickson and A. Abbott, “Britain asks to join European Southern Observatory,” Nature, vol. 405, no. 6785, pp. 382–383, May 2000.
A journal article with 3 authors
L. Loewe, V. Textor, and S. Scherer, “High deleterious genomic mutation rate in stationary phase of Escherichia coli,” Science, vol. 302, no. 5650, pp. 1558–1560, Nov. 2003.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
K. Homma, M. Yoshimura, J. Saito, R. Ikebe, and M. Ikebe, “The core of the motor domain determines the direction of myosin movement,” Nature, vol. 412, no. 6849, pp. 831–834, Aug. 2001.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
N. Rezg, Z. Hajej, and V. Boschian-Campaner, Production and Maintenance Optimization Problems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2016.
An edited book
L. Cheng, D. Y. Zhang, and J. N. Eble, Eds., Molecular Genetic Pathology, 2nd ed. 2013. New York, NY: Springer, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
C. B. Carter and M. G. Norton, “Models, Crystals, and Chemistry,” in Ceramic Materials: Science and Engineering, M. G. Norton, Ed. New York, NY: Springer, 2013, pp. 73–88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Information Theory.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Personal Microbiomes Could Be Used To Identify Individuals,” IFLScience, 12-May-2015. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Continued Use of Costly, Outmoded Computers in Federal Agencies Can Be Avoided,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, AFMD-81-9, Dec. 1980.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. C. Norton, “Elementary ESL and General Education Co-Teachers’ Perceptions of Their Co-Teaching Roles: A Mixed Methods Study,” Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Sisario, “Verses of Civil Rights Anthem ‘We Shall Overcome’ Are Ruled Not Under Copyright,” New York Times, p. B5, 09-Sep-2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [1].
This sentence cites four references [1], [1], [1], [1].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Information Theory
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Inf. Theory
ISSN (print)0018-9448
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Information Systems
Library and Information Sciences

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