How to format your references using the Frontiers in Neuroinformatics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Neuroinformatics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eisenstein, M. (2011). Vaccines: Know your enemy. Nature 471, S8-9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bowerman, B., and O’Rourke, S. M. (2012). Development. Pushing your back into place. Science 336, 984–985.
A journal article with 3 authors
Aarts, D. G. A. L., Schmidt, M., and Lekkerkerker, H. N. W. (2004). Direct visual observation of thermal capillary waves. Science 304, 847–850.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Chang, C.-I., Chelliah, Y., Borek, D., Mengin-Lecreulx, D., and Deisenhofer, J. (2006). Structure of tracheal cytotoxin in complex with a heterodimeric pattern-recognition receptor. Science 311, 1761–1764.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anderson, J. C., and Naeim, F. (2012). Basic Structural Dynamics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Wiesel, S. W., and Delahay, J. N. eds. (2011). Essentials of Orthopedic Surgery. 4th ed. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Yu, S., Chen, H., Böhm, C., and Allgöwer, F. (2009). “Enlarging the Terminal Region of NMPC with Parameter-Dependent Terminal Control Law,” in Nonlinear Model Predictive Control: Towards New Challenging Applications Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences., eds. L. Magni, D. M. Raimondo, and F. Allgöwer (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 69–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Neuroinformatics.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2016). Chemical Found In Deep Space Hints At How Life Formed. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2000). Federal Communications Commission: Installment Payment Financing for Personal Communications Services (PCS) Licensees. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Song, H.-J. (2014). Strategic Constraints of Economic Interdependence: South Korea’s Changing Strategy in the Face of a Rising China.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2011). Far From Perfection, but Closer to Vindication. New York Times, SP3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Eisenstein, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Eisenstein, 2011; Bowerman and O’Rourke, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bowerman and O’Rourke, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Chang et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Neuroinformatics
AbbreviationFront. Neuroinform.
ISSN (online)1662-5196
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Biomedical Engineering
Neuroscience (miscellaneous)

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