How to format your references using the Frontiers in Neuroinformatics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Neuroinformatics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. (2007). Georgia on the mind. Nature 445, 790–791.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hughes, K. J., and Kennedy, B. K. (2012). Cell biology. Rapamycin paradox resolved. Science 335, 1578–1579.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhao, W., Luo, J., and Jiao, S. (2014). Comprehensive characterization of cancer subtype associated long non-coding RNAs and their clinical implications. Sci. Rep. 4, 6591.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Li, W. K. W., McLaughlin, F. A., Lovejoy, C., and Carmack, E. C. (2009). Smallest algae thrive as the Arctic Ocean freshens. Science 326, 539.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Penner, T., and Lopez, D. C. (2015). De-Introducing the New Testament. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Coffey, J., Budgeon, S., and Cahill, H. eds. (2016). Learning Bodies: The Body in Youth and Childhood Studies. Singapore: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Dunn, D. H., Johnson, E. M., Kemp, K., Ganz, R., Leon, S., and Banerji, N. (2014). “Robotic Assisted Operations for Gastroesophageal Reflux,” in Robotics in General Surgery, ed. K. C. Kim (New York, NY: Springer), 33–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Neuroinformatics.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2015). Neolithic Skeleton Reveals Ancient Case Of Rickets. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1986). [Comments on Applicability of Vacancies Act to Various Labor and Education Officers]. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wenger, M. C. (2011). Free-choice family learning experiences at informal astronomy observing events.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY, J. C., Jr (2017). Man Convicted of Murder in Patz Case Is Sentenced to 25 Years to Life. New York Times, A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Hughes and Kennedy, 2012; Smaglik, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hughes and Kennedy, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Li et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Neuroinformatics
AbbreviationFront. Neuroinform.
ISSN (online)1662-5196
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Biomedical Engineering
Neuroscience (miscellaneous)

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