How to format your references using the Frontiers in Neuroinformatics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Neuroinformatics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Seife, C. (2000). NEUROPSYCHOLOGY: Language Affects Sound Perception. Science 290, 2051b–2b.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rogers, W. B., and Manoharan, V. N. (2015). DNA nanotechnology. Programming colloidal phase transitions with DNA strand displacement. Science 347, 639–642.
A journal article with 3 authors
Downs, J. A., Nussenzweig, M. C., and Nussenzweig, A. (2007). Chromatin dynamics and the preservation of genetic information. Nature 447, 951–958.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Revyakin, A., Liu, C., Ebright, R. H., and Strick, T. R. (2006). Abortive initiation and productive initiation by RNA polymerase involve DNA scrunching. Science 314, 1139–1143.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brook, M. V. (2011). Ultrasonic Inspection Technology Development and Search Unit Design. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Knaster, S. (2012). Learn Objective-C on the Mac: For iOS and OS X. , eds. W. Malik and M. Dalrymple Berkeley, CA: Apress.
A chapter in an edited book
Xu, X. M., and Jackson, D. (2012). “Cell-to-Cell Movement of Homeodomain Transcription Factors: Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow,” in Short and Long Distance Signaling, eds. F. Kragler and M. Hülskamp (New York, NY: Springer), 87–98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Neuroinformatics.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015). Turtles Seem Surprisingly Unafraid Of Sharks. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2002). Research and Development: Lessons Learned from Previous Research Could Benefit FreedomCAR Initiative. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Swan, C. (2017). Arts participation and career preparedness: A pragmatic approach to assessing arts benefits.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Oestreich, J. R. (2017). Lamenting Dead Kings, Spending Sunday at the Pub. New York Times, C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Seife, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Seife, 2000; Rogers and Manoharan, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rogers and Manoharan, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Revyakin et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Neuroinformatics
AbbreviationFront. Neuroinform.
ISSN (online)1662-5196
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Biomedical Engineering
Neuroscience (miscellaneous)

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