How to format your references using the Frontiers in Neuroinformatics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Neuroinformatics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Couzin-Frankel, J. (2014). The elusive heart fix. Science 345, 252–257.
A journal article with 2 authors
Theise, N. D., and Wilmut, I. (2003). Cell plasticity: flexible arrangement. Nature 425, 21.
A journal article with 3 authors
Khudiyev, T., Tobail, O., and Bayindir, M. (2014). Tailoring self-organized nanostructured morphologies in kilometer-long polymer fiber. Sci. Rep. 4, 4864.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Liu, Y., Chen, C.-C., Hong, Z., Gao, J., Yang, Y. M., Zhou, H., et al. (2013). Solution-processed small-molecule solar cells: breaking the 10% power conversion efficiency. Sci. Rep. 3, 3356.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Szczecinski, L., and Alvarado, A. (2014). Bit-Interleaved Coded Modulation. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Howell, F. M., Porter, J. R., and Matthews, S. A. eds. (2016). Recapturing Space: New Middle-Range Theory in Spatial Demography. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Rydzak, F., Breistrand, L. S., Sveen, F. O., Qian, Y., and Gonzalez, J. J. (2006). “Exploring Resilience Towards Risks in eOperations in the Oil and Gas Industry,” in Computer Safety, Reliability, and Security: 25th International Conference, SAFECOMP 2006, Gdansk, Poland, September 27-29, 2006. Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science., ed. J. Górski (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 57–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Neuroinformatics.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2017). Woman Finds Literal Nightmare Crawling Around Inside Her Head. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992). Airline Competition: Industry Competitive and Financial Problems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brightbill, R. G. (2012). Bradenton, FL: A Patchwork City.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Clarey, C. (2016). Halep Puts Up a Fight, but Williams Rolls On. New York Times, B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Couzin-Frankel, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Theise and Wilmut, 2003; Couzin-Frankel, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Theise and Wilmut, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Liu et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Neuroinformatics
AbbreviationFront. Neuroinform.
ISSN (online)1662-5196
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Biomedical Engineering
Neuroscience (miscellaneous)

Other styles