How to format your references using the Case Reports in Gastroenterology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Case Reports in Gastroenterology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bakardjiev A. Immunology: Stillbirth prevented by signal blockade. Nature. 2015 Apr;520(7549):627–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sattler A, Parkin G. Cleaving carbon-carbon bonds by inserting tungsten into unstrained aromatic rings. Nature. 2010 Jan;463(7280):523–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Song K, Yeom E, Lee SJ. Real-time imaging of pulvinus bending in Mimosa pudica. Sci Rep. 2014 Sep;4:6466.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Saze H, Shiraishi A, Miura A, Kakutani T. Control of genic DNA methylation by a jmjC domain-containing protein in Arabidopsis thaliana. Science. 2008 Jan;319(5862):462–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Thornicroft G, Semrau M, Alem A, Drake RE, Ito H, Mari J, et al. Community Mental Health. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2011.
An edited book
Goldengorin B. Data Correcting Approaches in Combinatorial Optimization. New York, NY: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Steinmann P. Computational Nonlinear Electro-Elasticity — Getting Started —. In: Ogden RW, Steigmann DJ, editors. Mechanics and Electrodynamics of Magneto- and Electro-elastic Materials. Vienna: Springer; 2011; pp 181–230.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Case Reports in Gastroenterology.

Blog post
Fang J. X-rays Reveal Text on Scorched Herculaneum Scrolls [Internet]. IFLScience. 2015 Jan [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Air Passenger Screening: Transportation Security Administration Could Improve Complaint Processes. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Guzman S. Numerical investigations of a pipe jet with coil insert issuing into a crossflow. 2015

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. Justices to See Philip Morris Case a Third Time. New York Times. 2008 Jun;C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCase Reports in Gastroenterology
AbbreviationCase Rep. Gastroenterol.
ISSN (online)1662-0631

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