How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Image Processing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Image Processing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. Lazcano, “Global voices of science. Teaching evolution in Mexico: preaching to the choir,” Science, vol. 310, no. 5749, pp. 787–789, Nov. 2005.
A journal article with 2 authors
A. J. Smith and B. Schwappach, “Cell biology. Think vesicular chloride,” Science, vol. 328, no. 5984, pp. 1364–1365, Jun. 2010.
A journal article with 3 authors
A. Xuereb, H. Ulbricht, and M. Paternostro, “Optomechanical interface for probing matter-wave coherence,” Sci. Rep., vol. 3, p. 3378, Nov. 2013.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J. J. Lim et al., “Spermatogonial stem cell enrichment using simple grafting of testis and in vitro cultivation,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 5923, Aug. 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
V. M. Lyatkher, Seismic Loads. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2015.
An edited book
I. J. Timm and C. Guttmann, Eds., Multiagent System Technologies: 10th German Conference, MATES 2012, Trier, Germany, October 10-12, 2012. Proceedings, vol. 7598. in Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 7598. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
R. Zheng and C. Hua, “Adversarial Multi-armed Bandit,” in Sequential Learning and Decision-Making in Wireless Resource Management, C. Hua, Ed., in Wireless Networks. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016, pp. 41–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Image Processing.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Virtual Bodyswapping Reduces Bias Against Other Races,” IFLScience, Feb. 04, 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Railroad Safety: Accident Trends and FRA Safety Programs,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, T-RCED-92-23, Jan. 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. B. Platt, “Feast in the time of terror: Stalinist temporal paradox and the 1937 Pushkin Jubilee,” Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University, New York, NY, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Kinsley, “Trump the Transparent,” New York Times, p. SR3, Jun. 17, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Image Processing
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Image Process.
ISSN (print)1057-7149
ScopeComputer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design

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