How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
G. A. Waychunas, “Interfacial chemistry. Disrupting dissolving ions at surfaces with fluid flow,” Science, vol. 344, no. 6188, pp. 1094–1095, Jun. 2014.
A journal article with 2 authors
Y. Yan and S. J. Pennycook, “Atomic structure of the quasicrystal Al72Ni20Co8,” Nature, vol. 403, no. 6767, pp. 266–267, Jan. 2000.
A journal article with 3 authors
H. Z. Shen, W. Wang, and X. X. Yi, “Hall conductance and topological invariant for open systems,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 6455, Sep. 2014.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J. C. Saldivar et al., “An intrinsic S/G2 checkpoint enforced by ATR,” Science, vol. 361, no. 6404, pp. 806–810, Aug. 2018.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
C. MacGowan, The Twentieth-Century American Fiction Handbook. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011.
An edited book
R. McGarry and S. Walklate, Eds., The Palgrave Handbook of Criminology and War. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
D. S. Kerzner and D. W. Chodikoff, “International Tax Enforcement in Canada,” in International Tax Evasion in the Global Information Age, D. W. Chodikoff, Ed. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016, pp. 105–152.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability.

Blog post
S. Luntz, “Brain Scans Reveal How Your Dog Really Feels,” IFLScience, 25-Nov-2014. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Telecommunications: Issues Related to Federal Funding for Public Television by the Corporation for Public Broadcasting,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-04-284, Apr. 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M. J. Nevin, “Addressing the Learning Outcomes and Assessment Methods Associated with Participation in Student Government Associations: A Qualitative Study of California Community Colleges,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
R. Rojas, “Brooklyn Heroin Ring Shut Down, Officials Say; 25 Are Charged,” New York Times, p. A24, 18-Sep-2015.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability
ISSN (print)1530-4388
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials

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