How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. Feduccia, “Fossils and avian evolution,” Nature, vol. 414, no. 6863, pp. 507–508, Nov. 2001.
A journal article with 2 authors
W. Bradshaw and C. Holzapfel, “Evolution. Tantalizing timeless,” Science, vol. 316, no. 5833, pp. 1851–1852, Jun. 2007.
A journal article with 3 authors
T. C. Kaufman, D. W. Severson, and G. E. Robinson, “The Anopheles genome and comparative insect genomics,” Science, vol. 298, no. 5591, pp. 97–98, Oct. 2002.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
R. Kassen, A. Buckling, G. Bell, and P. B. Rainey, “Diversity peaks at intermediate productivity in a laboratory microcosm,” Nature, vol. 406, no. 6795, pp. 508–512, Aug. 2000.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
E. A. Durenard, Professional Automated Trading. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2013.
An edited book
A. Bokulich and P. Bokulich, Eds., Scientific Structuralism, vol. 281. in Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science, vol. 281. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
P. G. Postema et al., “Founder mutations in the Netherlands: familial idiopathic ventricular fibrillation and DPP6*,” in Founder mutations in inherited cardiac diseases in the Netherlands, A. A. M. Wilde and J. P. van Tintelen, Eds., Houten: Bohn Stafleu van Loghum, 2014, pp. 29–35.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Shark Giving Birth Caught On Camera,” IFLScience, Jan. 12, 2015. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Aircraft Preservation: Preserving DOD Aircraft Significant to Aviation History,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, NSIAD-88-170BR, May 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
K. M. Williamson, “The effects of communist policies, the democratic transition, and EU accession on gender equality in Germany and the Czech Republic,” Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Barron, “The Coda to a Remarkable Career: Barbara Cook Has Retired,” New York Times, p. A19, May 07, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability
ISSN (print)1530-4388
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials

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