How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Y. Ruan, “Genome-sequencing anniversary. Presenting the human genome: now in 3D!,” Science, vol. 331, no. 6020, pp. 1025–1026, Feb. 2011.
A journal article with 2 authors
B. Scholl and N. J. Priebe, “Neuroscience: The cortical connection,” Nature, vol. 518, no. 7539, pp. 306–307, Feb. 2015.
A journal article with 3 authors
R. C. Van Horn, H. E. Watts, and K. E. Holekamp, “Do female hyaenas choose mates based on tenure?,” Nature, vol. 454, no. 7201, pp. E1; discussion E2, Jul. 2008.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S. C. Eisenbarth, O. R. Colegio, W. O’Connor, F. S. Sutterwala, and R. A. Flavell, “Crucial role for the Nalp3 inflammasome in the immunostimulatory properties of aluminium adjuvants,” Nature, vol. 453, no. 7198, pp. 1122–1126, Jun. 2008.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Benslama, W. Kiamouche, and H. Batatia, Connections Management Strategies in Satellite Cellular Networks. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2015.
An edited book
S. Flesca, Repairing and Querying Databases under Aggregate Constraints. in SpringerBriefs in Computer Science. New York, NY: Springer, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
D. Singh, M. K. Choudhary, M. L. Meena, and M. M. Roy, “Oran Dynamics: A Community-Based Biodiversity Management System in India’s Arid Zone,” in Dryland Forests: Management and Social Diversity in Africa and Asia, P. Bose and H. van Dijk, Eds., Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016, pp. 73–93.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability.

Blog post
S. Luntz, “Bear Saves Crow From Drowning,” IFLScience. Accessed: Oct. 30, 2018. [Online]. Available:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “GAO Rolodex Cards,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 148869, Apr. 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
V. Martinez, “The relationship between visit to a doctor and the health behaviors of children,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Koblin, “AMC Networks Takes Minority Stake in Funny or Die,” New York Times, p. B8, Nov. 15, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability
ISSN (print)1530-4388
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials

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