How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Kaiser, “American Society of Gene Therapy meeting. Retroviral vectors: a double-edged sword,” Science, vol. 308, no. 5729, pp. 1735–1736, Jun. 2005.
A journal article with 2 authors
B. J. Brosi and E. G. N. Biber, “Conservation. Citizen involvement in the U.S. Endangered Species Act,” Science, vol. 337, no. 6096, pp. 802–803, Aug. 2012.
A journal article with 3 authors
E. Kernbauer, Y. Ding, and K. Cadwell, “An enteric virus can replace the beneficial function of commensal bacteria,” Nature, vol. 516, no. 7529, pp. 94–98, Dec. 2014.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
K.-K. Wong et al., “Telomere dysfunction and Atm deficiency compromises organ homeostasis and accelerates ageing,” Nature, vol. 421, no. 6923, pp. 643–648, Feb. 2003.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J. Hecht, Understanding Lasers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2008.
An edited book
H. Dai, J. N. K. Liu, and E. Smirnov, Eds., Reliable Knowledge Discovery. Boston, MA: Springer US, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Á. Jónsson and H. Sigurgeirsson, “Day Zero,” in The Icelandic Financial Crisis: A Study into the World´s Smallest Currency Area and its Recovery from Total Banking Collapse, H. Sigurgeirsson, Ed. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2016, pp. 103–138.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability.

Blog post
J. Fang, “UK Bans Teaching Creationism in State-Funded Schools,” IFLScience, Jun. 18, 2014. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Committee on Governmental Affairs: Alleged Senate Compromise of NASA Complainant’s Identity,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, OSI-94-30, Jul. 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
K. Williams, “Riot Bias: A Textual Analysis of Pussy Riot’s Coverage in Russian and American Media,” Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Hollander, “Inspiring Without Saying a Word,” New York Times, p. F3, Nov. 08, 1999.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability
ISSN (print)1530-4388
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials

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