How to format your references using the Austral Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Austral Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Faber K. T. (2013) Materials science. Small volumes create super(elastic) effects. Science 341 , 1464–1465.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hamm J. M. & Hess O. (2013) Physics. Two two-dimensional materials are better than one. Science 340 , 1298–1299.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jakobsen L., Ratcliffe J. M. & Surlykke A. (2013) Convergent acoustic field of view in echolocating bats. Nature 493 , 93–96.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Goodman A. A., Rosolowsky E. W., Borkin M. A. et al. (2009) A role for self-gravity at multiple length scales in the process of star formation. Nature 457 , 63–66.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yin G. (2011) Clinical Trial Design: Bayesian and Frequentist Adaptive Methods. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Azimova S. S. & Vinogradova V. I. eds (2013) Natural Compounds: Flavonoids. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Cataldo F. (2005) From Elemental Carbon to Complex Macromolecular Networks in Space. In: Astrobiology: Future Perspectives (eds P. Ehrenfreund, W. Irvine, T. Owen, et al.) pp. 97–126 Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Austral Ecology.

Blog post
Felton J. (2017) Extraordinary Footage Captures Eruption At Japan’s Sakurajima Volcano. IFLScience. [online]. Available from: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999) Customs Service Modernization: Actions Initiated to Correct ACE Management and Technical Weaknesses. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ho T. (2012) The influence of physical activity and unsafe neighborhoods on the development of gestational diabetes among women in California. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly C. (2008) Over the Years, It Feels Right at Home. New York Times, LI4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Faber 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Faber 2013; Hamm and Hess 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hamm and Hess 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Goodman et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleAustral Ecology
AbbreviationAustral Ecol.
ISSN (print)1442-9985
ISSN (online)1442-9993
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Plant Science

Other styles