How to format your references using the Austral Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Austral Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stone A. J. (2007) Chemistry. Water from first principles. Science 315 , 1228–1229.
A journal article with 2 authors
Forster P. & Matsumura S. (2005) Evolution. Did early humans go north or south? Science 308 , 965–966.
A journal article with 3 authors
Doebeli M., Hauert C. & Killingback T. (2004) The evolutionary origin of cooperators and defectors. Science 306 , 859–862.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Phizicky E., Bastiaens P. I. H., Zhu H., Snyder M. & Fields S. (2003) Protein analysis on a proteomic scale. Nature 422 , 208–215.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Camman C., Fiore C., Livolsi L. & Querro P. (2017) Supply Chain Management and Business Performance. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Bichurin M. (2014) Modeling of Magnetoelectric Effects in Composites. (ed V. Petrov). Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Lu Z., Qu Y. & Qiao S. (2014) Reference Ellipsoid and the Geodetic Coordinate System. In: Geodesy: Introduction to Geodetic Datum and Geodetic Systems (eds Y. Qu & S. Qiao) pp. 165–263 Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Austral Ecology.

Blog post
Andrew E. (2014) Secret Spaceplane Lands After 674 Days In Orbit. IFLScience. [online]. Available from: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2005) Air Traffic Operations: The Federal Aviation Administration Needs to Address Major Air Traffic Operating Cost Control Changes. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mehmeti A. (2010) Intensive dramaturgical research facilitated the creation of the character Soran Saleen in “The Poetry of Pizza”. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Marx L. (2014) When ‘The Hokey Pokey’ Just Doesn’t Cut It. New York Times, ST28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stone 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Stone 2007; Forster and Matsumura 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Forster and Matsumura 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Phizicky et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleAustral Ecology
AbbreviationAustral Ecol.
ISSN (print)1442-9985
ISSN (online)1442-9993
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Plant Science

Other styles