How to format your references using the Austral Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Austral Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Boyd R. W. (2015) Nuclear physics: Neutrons with a twist. Nature 525 , 462–464.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dermitzakis E. T. & Clark A. G. (2009) Genetics. Life after GWA studies. Science 326 , 239–240.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mahadevan A., Thomas L. N. & Tandon A. (2008) Comment on ‘Eddy/wind interactions stimulate extraordinary mid-ocean plankton blooms’. Science 320 , 448; author reply 448.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Bennett M. R., Pang W. L., Ostroff N. A. et al. (2008) Metabolic gene regulation in a dynamically changing environment. Nature 454 , 1119–1122.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Minelli M., Chambers M. & Dhiraj A. (2013) Big Data, Big Analytics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Gupta R. K., Reybroeck W., van Veen J. W. & Gupta A. eds (2014) Beekeeping for Poverty Alleviation and Livelihood Security: Vol. 1: Technological Aspects of Beekeeping. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Groundwater-Smith S. & Irwin J. (2011) Action Researchaction research in Educationeducation and Social Worksocial work. In: Methodological Choice and Design: Scholarship, Policy and Practice in Social and Educational Research (eds L. Markauskaite, P. Freebody, & J. Irwin) pp. 57–69 Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Austral Ecology.

Blog post
Fang J. (2014) Digital Metamaterials Get Us Closer to Invisibility Cloaks. IFLScience. [online]. Available from: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1978) International Education Programs. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Goldner V. R. (2010) Arizona nurses’ attitudes toward legislated minimum staffing ratios: Impact on the workplace. Doctoral dissertation. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burfoot A. & Hirsch G. A. (2012) The Honorable Clan Of the Long-Distance Runner. New York Times, SP11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Boyd 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Boyd 2015; Dermitzakis and Clark 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dermitzakis and Clark 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Bennett et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleAustral Ecology
AbbreviationAustral Ecol.
ISSN (print)1442-9985
ISSN (online)1442-9993
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Plant Science

Other styles