How to format your references using the Austral Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Austral Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Helander M. G. (2012) Applied physics. Solution-processible electrodes. Science 336 , 302–303.
A journal article with 2 authors
Liu Q. & Zhang P. (2014) IR Li2Ga2GeS6 nanocrystallized GeS2-Ga2S3-Li2S electroconductive chalcogenide glass with good nonlinearity. Sci. Rep.
A journal article with 3 authors
Alben S., Shelley M. & Zhang J. (2002) Drag reduction through self-similar bending of a flexible body. Nature 420 , 479–481.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Dubertret B., Skourides P., Norris D. J., Noireaux V., Brivanlou A. H. & Libchaber A. (2002) In vivo imaging of quantum dots encapsulated in phospholipid micelles. Science 298 , 1759–1762.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lee W. F. (2005) Verilog Coding for Logic Synthesis. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Normey-Rico J. E. (2007) Control of Dead-time Processes. (ed E. F. Camacho). Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Barnett A. G. & Dobson A. J. (2010) Controlling for Season. In: Analysing Seasonal Health Data (ed A. J. Dobson) Statistics for Biology and Health. pp. 129–150 Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Austral Ecology.

Blog post
Andrews R. (2015) Researchers Can Now 3D Print Stem Cell ‘Building Blocks’. IFLScience. [online]. Available from: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1976) NASA’s Choice of a Location for Its Proposed Lunar Curatorial Facility. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Caldretti M. (2017) Vocal Pedagogy and the Adolescent Female Singing Voice. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feuer A. & Rashbaum W. K. (2017) Family Past Heightens Enigma of Judge’s Death. New York Times, A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Helander 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Helander 2012; Liu and Zhang 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Liu and Zhang 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Dubertret et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleAustral Ecology
AbbreviationAustral Ecol.
ISSN (print)1442-9985
ISSN (online)1442-9993
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Plant Science

Other styles