How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C. Willyard, “Stem cells: bad seeds,” Nature, vol. 498, no. 7455, pp. S12-3, Jun. 2013.
A journal article with 2 authors
T. R. Insel and S. Landis, “Allison Doupe (1954-2014),” Nature, vol. 515, no. 7527, p. 344, Nov. 2014.
A journal article with 3 authors
C. A. Dwyer, D. J. Stevenson, and F. Nimmo, “A long-lived lunar dynamo driven by continuous mechanical stirring,” Nature, vol. 479, no. 7372, pp. 212–214, Nov. 2011.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. Schüssler, H. Martin, D. Cohen, M. Fitz, and D. Wipf, “Characterization of a carbohydrate transporter from symbiotic glomeromycotan fungi,” Nature, vol. 444, no. 7121, pp. 933–936, Dec. 2006.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
C. L. Yeakley and J. D. Fiebrich, Collaborative Process Improvement. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2015.
An edited book
J.-P. Rozelot and C. Neiner, Eds., Cartography of the Sun and the Stars, 1st ed. 2016., vol. 914. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
L. Wang, “A Constitutional Review of the Division of Fiscal Responsibilities Between Central and Local Governments,” in Public Budgeting Reform in China: Theory and Practice, X. Liu, Ed. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2015, pp. 81–95.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing.

Blog post
J. Fang, “17-Million-Year-Old Whale Fossil Gives Hints To The Dawn Of Humanity,” IFLScience, Mar. 18, 2015. .


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Electronic Government: Potential Exists for Enhancing Collaboration on Four Initiatives,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-04-6, Oct. 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
P. Penix-Tadsen, “Marketing marginality: Resistance and commodification in contemporary Latin American cultural production,” Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University, New York, NY, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
G. Johnson, “In Chernobyl, Life Finds a Way,” New York Times, p. D3, Nov. 24, 2015.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Dependable Secure Comput.
ISSN (print)1545-5971
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering

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