How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
O. Etzioni, “Search needs a shake-up,” Nature, vol. 476, no. 7358, pp. 25–26, Aug. 2011.
A journal article with 2 authors
T. Kambe and K. Oshima, “Dynamically fluctuating electric dipole moments in fullerene-based magnets,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 6419, Sep. 2014.
A journal article with 3 authors
B. M. Green, K. J. Finn, and J. J. Li, “Loss of DNA replication control is a potent inducer of gene amplification,” Science, vol. 329, no. 5994, pp. 943–946, Aug. 2010.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Y. Zeng et al., “Perturbation of mitiglinide metabolism by chronic unpredicted mild stress in rats,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 3794, Jan. 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
G. Heads, Living Mindfully. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2017.
An edited book
T. Flüeler, Ed., Decision Making for Complex Socio-Technical Systems: Robustness from Lessons Learned in Long-term Radioactive Waste Governance, vol. 42. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
V. Derkach, S. Hassi, and H. de Snoo, “Asymptotic Expansions of Generalized Nevanlinna Functions and their Spectral Properties,” in Operator Theory in Inner Product Spaces, K.-H. Förster, P. Jonas, H. Langer, and C. Trunk, Eds. Basel: Birkhäuser, 2007, pp. 51–88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing.

Blog post
R. Andrews, “Two Colossal Blobs Of Molten Rock Are Hiding Under Africa And The Pacific Ocean,” IFLScience, 08-Jul-2016. .


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Summary of a Report: The National School Lunch Program, Is It Working?,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, PAD-77-7, Jul. 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S. Chhun, “Assessing the role of vacuolar trafficking in fifteen candidate env genes at the late endosome to vacuole interface in S. cerevisiae,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. W. Walsh, “Rhode Island Steps In for City,” New York Times, p. A23, 15-Nov-2011.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Dependable Secure Comput.
ISSN (print)1545-5971
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering

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