# How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

## Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

## Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
C. B. Fisher, “Public health. Clinical trials results databases: unanswered questions,” Science, vol. 311, no. 5758, pp. 180–181, Jan. 2006.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Y. Arlot-Bonnemains and C. Prigent, “Cell cycle. A trigger for centrosome duplication,” Science, vol. 295, no. 5554, pp. 455–456, Jan. 2002.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
J. O’Connor, X. Zheng, and Z. Zhou, “Zheng et al. reply,” Nature, vol. 499, no. 7457, pp. E1-2, Jul. 2013.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
[1]
R. Bshary, A. S. Grutter, A. S. T. Willener, and O. Leimar, “Pairs of cooperating cleaner fish provide better service quality than singletons,” Nature, vol. 455, no. 7215, pp. 964–966, Oct. 2008.

## Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
E. Heitz and G. Kreysa, Grundlagen der Technischen Elektrochemie. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2005.
An edited book
[1]
R. Dijkman, J. Hofstetter, and J. Koehler, Eds., Business Process Model and Notation: Third International Workshop, BPMN 2011, Lucerne, Switzerland, November 21-22, 2011. Proceedings, vol. 95. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
A. Jalal, M. Z. Uddin, J. T. Kim, and T.-S. Kim, “Daily Human Activity Recognition Using Depth Silhouettes and $\mathcal{R}$ Transformation for Smart Home,” in Toward Useful Services for Elderly and People with Disabilities: 9th International Conference on Smart Homes and Health Telematics, ICOST 2011, Montreal, Canada, June 20-22, 2011. Proceedings, B. Abdulrazak, S. Giroux, B. Bouchard, H. Pigot, and M. Mokhtari, Eds. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2011, pp. 25–32.

## Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering.

Blog post
[1]
E. Andrew, “Thunder God Vine Extract Makes Obese Mice Rapidly Shed The Pounds,” IFLScience, May 27, 2015. .

## Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office, “Motor Carrier Safety: Improvements to Data-Driven Oversight Could Better Target High Risk Carriers,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-15-433T, Mar. 2015.

## Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
R. J. Child, “The evolution of BARREN INFLORESCENCE1 and related AUX/IAA genes in angiosperms,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2013.

## News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
B. Hubbard and E. Schmitt, “Saudi Official Who Fell From View Is Promoted,” New York Times, p. A6, Jul. 21, 2017.

## In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].