How to format your references using the Heart Asia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Heart Asia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marchio EA. My metamorphosis. Science 2015;347:206.
A journal article with 2 authors
Madix RJ, Friend CM. Interfacial chemistry: gold’s enigmatic surface. Nature 2011;479:482–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chabre M, Cone R, Saibil H. Biophysics: is rhodopsin dimeric in native retinal rods? Nature 2003;426:30–1; discussion 31.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Conway H, Catania G, Raymond CF, et al. Switch of flow direction in an Antarctic ice stream. Nature 2002;419:465–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Scott AW, Frobenius R. RF Measurements for Cellular Phones and Wireless Data Systems. Hoboken, NJ: : John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2008.
An edited book
McEwan IJ, Kumar R, editors. Nuclear Receptors: From Structure to the Clinic. 1st ed. 2015. Cham: : Springer International Publishing 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Hall JC. Skin Disease in Solid Organ Transplant Patients. In: Hall JC, ed. Skin Diseases in the Immunocompromised. London: : Springer 2014. 55–9.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Heart Asia.

Blog post
Taub B. Parasitic Birds Plan Their Hits Like Professional Burglars. IFLScience. 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: Status and Challenges of Employee Exchange Program. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Han B. Mechanistic Consequences of Cardiac Oxidative Stress. 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L. New Setting for Double-Diamond Cottage. New York Times. 2006;:14LI3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHeart Asia
AbbreviationHeart Asia
ISSN (online)1759-1104
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Other styles