How to format your references using the IEEE Signal Processing Magazine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Signal Processing Magazine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D. M. Pardoll, “Immunology. Stress, NK receptors, and immune surveillance,” Science, vol. 294, no. 5542, pp. 534–536, Oct. 2001.
A journal article with 2 authors
G. Song and W. Zhang, “First-principles study on the phase diagram and multiferroic properties of (SrCoO3)1/(SrTiO3)1 superlattices,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 4564, Apr. 2014.
A journal article with 3 authors
M. X. Mori, M. G. Erickson, and D. T. Yue, “Functional stoichiometry and local enrichment of calmodulin interacting with Ca2+ channels,” Science, vol. 304, no. 5669, pp. 432–435, Apr. 2004.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D. R. Faulkner, T. M. Mitchell, D. Healy, and M. J. Heap, “Slip on ‘weak’ faults by the rotation of regional stress in the fracture damage zone,” Nature, vol. 444, no. 7121, pp. 922–925, Dec. 2006.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
W. Zhang, I. Shmulevich, and J. Astola, Microarray Quality Control. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2005.
An edited book
M. Hertl, Ed., Autoimmune Diseases of the Skin: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, Management, 3rd ed., . 3rd ed., Vienna: Springer, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
V. Bondarenko, G. Troyanova, M. Balucani, and A. Ferrari, “Porous Silicon Based SOI: History and Prospects,” in Science and Technology of Semiconductor-On-Insulator Structures and Devices Operating in a Harsh Environment: Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Science and Technology of Semiconductor-On-Insulator Structures and Devices Operating in a Harsh Environment Kiev, Ukraine 26–30 April 2004, D. Flandre, A. N. Nazarov, and P. L. F. Hemment, Eds., in NATO Science Series II: Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2005, pp. 53–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Signal Processing Magazine.

Blog post
R. Andrews, “The US Army Is Developing ‘Dragon Silk’ Body Armor Using Genetically Engineered Silkworms,” IFLScience, Jul. 18, 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Savings Opportunity for the United States Mint’s Promotional Mailings,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, T-GGD-90-34, Apr. 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
E. F. Mac Garrigle, “A validation of the enterprise management engineering approach to knowledge management systems engineering,” Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 2006.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Tisserand, “A Racism Harder Than Stone,” New York Times, p. A23, May 08, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Signal Processing Magazine
AbbreviationIEEE Signal Process. Mag.
ISSN (print)1053-5888
ScopeSignal Processing
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Applied Mathematics

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