How to format your references using the IEEE Signal Processing Magazine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Signal Processing Magazine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. V. Aho, “Software and the future of programming languages,” Science, vol. 303, no. 5662, pp. 1331–1333, Feb. 2004.
A journal article with 2 authors
Y. Murayama and F. Uhlmann, “Biochemical reconstitution of topological DNA binding by the cohesin ring,” Nature, vol. 505, no. 7483, pp. 367–371, Jan. 2014.
A journal article with 3 authors
K. Hashiyama, Y. Hayashi, and S. Kobayashi, “Drosophila Sex lethal gene initiates female development in germline progenitors,” Science, vol. 333, no. 6044, pp. 885–888, Aug. 2011.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S. Luyssaert et al., “Trade-offs in using European forests to meet climate objectives,” Nature, vol. 562, no. 7726, pp. 259–262, Oct. 2018.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D. R. Hillis and J. B. Duvall, Improving Profitability through Green Manufacturing. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2012.
An edited book
M. Gerlach, J. Deckert, K. Double, and E. Koutsilieri, Eds., Neuropsychiatric Disorders An Integrative Approach, vol. 72. in Journal of Neural Transmission. Supplementa, vol. 72. Vienna: Springer, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
E. Albert, J. Correas, and G. Román-Díez, “Resource Analysis of Distributed Systems,” in Theory and Practice of Formal Methods: Essays Dedicated to Frank de Boer on the Occasion of His 60th Birthday, E. Ábrahám, M. Bonsangue, and E. B. Johnsen, Eds., in Lecture Notes in Computer Science. , Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016, pp. 33–46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Signal Processing Magazine.

Blog post
A. Carpineti, “Solar Activity Is Responsible For Ceres’ Temporary Atmosphere,” IFLScience. Accessed: Oct. 30, 2018. [Online]. Available:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Transportation Security: TSA Has Taken Actions to Address Transportation Security Acquisition Reform Act Requirements,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-16-285, Feb. 2016.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R. A. Brugna, “Augmenting the clinical clerkship curriculum of a physician assistant training program with distance education technology: Educational outcomes and student perceptions,” Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, Minneapolis, MN, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Crow, “City Is to Build the Largest DNA Lab, for a Grim Task,” New York Times, p. 147, Oct. 07, 2001.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Signal Processing Magazine
AbbreviationIEEE Signal Process. Mag.
ISSN (print)1053-5888
ScopeSignal Processing
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Applied Mathematics

Other styles