How to format your references using the Feminist Legal Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Feminist Legal Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gould, Paula. 2002. Portraits of science. Two good women, or too good to be true? Science (New York, N.Y.) 296: 1805–1806.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gottfried, Kurt, and Edwin E. Salpeter. 2005. Obituary: Hans A. Bethe (1906-2005). Nature 434: 970–971.
A journal article with 3 authors
Vohs, Kathleen D., Nicole L. Mead, and Miranda R. Goode. 2006. The psychological consequences of money. Science (New York, N.Y.) 314: 1154–1156.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Ota, Sadao, Ryoichi Horisaki, Yoko Kawamura, Masashi Ugawa, Issei Sato, Kazuki Hashimoto, Ryosuke Kamesawa, et al. 2018. Ghost cytometry. Science (New York, N.Y.) 360: 1246–1251.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zepernick, Hans-Jürgen, and Adolf Finger. 2005. Pseudo Random Signal Processing. West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons Ltd,.
An edited book
Diamantopoulos, Adamantios, Wolfgang Fritz, and Lutz Hildebrandt, ed. 2012. Quantitative Marketing and Marketing Management: Marketing Models and Methods in Theory and Practice. Wiesbaden: Gabler Verlag.
A chapter in an edited book
Batko, Bogdan, and Janusz Brzdȩk. 2014. A Remark on Some Simultaneous Functional Inequalities in Riesz Spaces. In Topics in Mathematical Analysis and Applications, ed. Themistocles M. Rassias and László Tóth, 111–117. Springer Optimization and Its Applications. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Feminist Legal Studies.

Blog post
Andrews, Robin. 2015. First In-Womb Stem Cell Clinical Trial Announced. IFLScience. IFLScience. October 13.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2008. Digital Television Transition: Majority of Broadcasters Are Prepared for the DTV Transition, but Some Technical and Coordination Issues Remain. GAO-08-510. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cook, Melissa M. 2017. An Examination of the Proportion of Special Education Students in Single-Parent Homes in Comparison to Regular Education Students in Similar Households. Doctoral dissertation, St. Charles, MO: Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stolberg, Sheryl Gay, and Ron Nixon. 2015. Another City, Another Death in Public Eye. New York Times, April 22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gould 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Gould 2002; Gottfried and Salpeter 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gottfried and Salpeter 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Ota et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleFeminist Legal Studies
AbbreviationFem. Leg. Stud.
ISSN (print)0966-3622
ISSN (online)1572-8455
ScopeGender Studies

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