How to format your references using the Feminist Legal Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Feminist Legal Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, Paul. 2004. Pitching ideas. Nature 427: 759.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pearse, A-M, and K. Swift. 2006. Allograft theory: transmission of devil facial-tumour disease. Nature 439: 549.
A journal article with 3 authors
Orihara, Yoshiaki, Masashi Kamogawa, and Toshiyasu Nagao. 2014. Preseismic changes of the level and temperature of confined groundwater related to the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake. Scientific reports 4: 6907.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Shin, T., D. Kraemer, J. Pryor, L. Liu, J. Rugila, L. Howe, S. Buck, K. Murphy, L. Lyons, and M. Westhusin. 2002. A cat cloned by nuclear transplantation. Nature 415: 859.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Roy, Debasish, and G. Visweswara Rao. 2012. Elements of Structural Dynamics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Cockett, Noelle E., and Chittaranjan Kole, ed. 2009. Genome Mapping and Genomics in Domestic Animals. Vol. 3. Genome Mapping and Genomics in Animals. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Bartlett, Lesley, and Emmanuel Mogusu. 2013. Teachers’ Understandings And Implementation Of Learner-Centered Pedagogy. In Teaching in Tension: International Pedagogies, National Policies, and Teachers’ Practices in Tanzania, ed. Lesley Bartlett, 61–74. Rotterdam: SensePublishers.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Feminist Legal Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, Danielle. 2017. These 20 Images Of Earth Over The Past 70 Years Show Why Countries Signed The Paris Agreement. IFLScience. IFLScience. June 4.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1994. Higher Education: Information on Minority-Targeted Scholarships. HEHS-94-77. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lewis, Solange Smita. 2006. Identification of Stress-Responsive Genes in the Early Larval Stage of the Fathead Minnow Pimephales promelas. Doctoral dissertation, Cincinnati, OH: University of Cincinnati.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Novick, Susan M. 2015. Prepared Foods With Panache. New York Times, October 18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik 2004; Pearse and Swift 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pearse and Swift 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Shin et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleFeminist Legal Studies
AbbreviationFem. Leg. Stud.
ISSN (print)0966-3622
ISSN (online)1572-8455
ScopeGender Studies

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