# How to format your references using the IEEE Power and Energy Magazine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Power and Energy Magazine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

## Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

## Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
W. E. Rees, “Ecological footprints: A blot on the land,” Nature, vol. 421, no. 6926, p. 898, Feb. 2003.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
C. Veigel and C. F. Schmidt, “Biochemistry. Friction in motor proteins,” Science, vol. 325, no. 5942, pp. 826–827, Aug. 2009.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
M. Oxborrow, J. D. Breeze, and N. M. Alford, “Room-temperature solid-state maser,” Nature, vol. 488, no. 7411, pp. 353–356, Aug. 2012.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
[1]
D. Gao, D. J. Nolan, A. S. Mellick, K. Bambino, K. McDonnell, and V. Mittal, “Endothelial progenitor cells control the angiogenic switch in mouse lung metastasis,” Science, vol. 319, no. 5860, pp. 195–198, Jan. 2008.

## Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
S. Krichen and J. Chaouachi, Graph-Related Optimization and Decision Support Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2014.
An edited book
[1]
V. Sigamani, J. J. H. Miller, R. Narasimhan, P. Mathiazhagan, and F. Victor, Eds., Differential Equations and Numerical Analysis: Tiruchirappalli, India, January 2015, vol. 172. New Delhi: Springer India, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
J. Hu, Z. Wang, and H. Gao, “Probability-Guaranteed $$H_\infty$$ H ∞ Finite-Horizon Filtering with Sensor Saturations,” in Nonlinear Stochastic Systems with Network-Induced Phenomena: Recursive Filtering and Sliding-Mode Design, Z. Wang and H. Gao, Eds. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015, pp. 101–118.

## Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Power and Energy Magazine.

Blog post
[1]
T. Hale, “This Presidential Hopeful Has A Rather ... Interesting Theory On Why The Pyramids Were Built,” IFLScience, 06-Nov-2015. .

## Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office, “Consolidated Student Loans: Borrowers Benefit but Costs to Them and the Government Grow,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, HRD-90-8, Jun. 1990.

## Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
H. T. Nguyen, “The ugly duckling: Juvenile delinquents in non-delinquent networks,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2013.

## News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
B. Brantley, “Musical Theater Loses A Versatile Voice,” New York Times, p. C1, 11-Sep-2017.

## In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].