How to format your references using the IEEE Photonics Technology Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Photonics Technology Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Baker, “Postdoc redefined,” Nature, vol. 446, no. 7139, p. 1114, Apr. 2007.
A journal article with 2 authors
S. C. Kinnamon and S. D. Reynolds, “Cell biology. Using taste to clear the air(ways),” Science, vol. 325, no. 5944, pp. 1081–1082, Aug. 2009.
A journal article with 3 authors
R. Shema, T. C. Sacktor, and Y. Dudai, “Rapid erasure of long-term memory associations in the cortex by an inhibitor of PKM zeta,” Science, vol. 317, no. 5840, pp. 951–953, Aug. 2007.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
H. Do et al., “A critical re-assessment of DNA repair gene promoter methylation in non-small cell lung carcinoma,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 4186, Feb. 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
L. Kimberlin, A. zur Linden, and L. Ruoff, Atlas of Clinical Imaging and Anatomy of the Equine Head. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2016.
An edited book
S. Wiak, A. Krawczyk, and M. Trlep, Eds., Computer Engineering in Applied Electromagnetism. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
K.-I. Hwang and D.-S. Eom, “Energy-Efficient Data Dissemination in Sensor Networks Using Distributed Dynamic Tree Management,” in Ad-Hoc, Mobile, and Wireless Networks: 5th International Conference, ADHOC-NOW 2006, Ottawa, Canada, August 17-19, 2006. Proceedings, T. Kunz and S. S. Ravi, Eds., in Lecture Notes in Computer Science. , Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2006, pp. 32–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Photonics Technology Letters.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Could A Smartphone App Help Stop The Next Polio Outbreak In Pakistan?,” IFLScience. Accessed: Oct. 30, 2018. [Online]. Available:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Internet Protocol Version 6: Federal Agencies Need to Plan for Transition and Manage Security Risks,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-05-471, May 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. Bao, “Design enhancements in repetitive and interative learning control,” Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University, New York, NY, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Greenhouse, “Justices to See Philip Morris Case a Third Time,” New York Times, p. C2, Jun. 10, 2008.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Photonics Technology Letters
AbbreviationIEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.
ISSN (print)1041-1135
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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