How to format your references using the IEEE Photonics Technology Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Photonics Technology Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
F. Grinnell, “Rethink our approach to assessing risk,” Nature, vol. 522, no. 7556, p. 257, Jun. 2015.
A journal article with 2 authors
C. Douvris and O. V. Ozerov, “Hydrodefluorination of perfluoroalkyl groups using silylium-carborane catalysts,” Science, vol. 321, no. 5893, pp. 1188–1190, Aug. 2008.
A journal article with 3 authors
Y. Qin, X. Wang, and Z. L. Wang, “Microfibre-nanowire hybrid structure for energy scavenging,” Nature, vol. 451, no. 7180, pp. 809–813, Feb. 2008.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. R. Kennedy, J. Klett, R. E. Mulvey, and D. S. Wright, “Synergic sedation of sensitive anions: alkali-mediated zincation of cyclic ethers and ethene,” Science, vol. 326, no. 5953, pp. 706–708, Oct. 2009.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J. Reiman, As Free and as Just as Possible. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012.
An edited book
T. Chakraborty, Ed., Charge Migration in DNA: Perspectives from Physics, Chemistry, and Biology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
L. Xiao and V. Cama, “Cryptosporidium and Cryptosporidiosis,” in Foodborne Parasites, Y. R. Ortega, Ed. Boston, MA: Springer US, 2006, pp. 57–108.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Photonics Technology Letters.

Blog post
C. Carpineti, “Watch This Cyborg Dragonfly Drone Take Flight,” IFLScience, Jun. 06, 2017. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Unmanned Aerial Systems: Status of Test Sites and International Developments,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-15-486T, Mar. 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
P. M. Binkley, “Relationship of Graduate Student Involvement to Graduate Alumni Donor Behavior,” Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Poniewozik, “The Ghost in the Machine May Be Your Soul,” New York Times, p. C1, Oct. 20, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Photonics Technology Letters
AbbreviationIEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.
ISSN (print)1041-1135
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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