How to format your references using the IEEE Photonics Technology Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Photonics Technology Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
I. Amigo, “Science made me a better parent,” Science, vol. 350, no. 6265, p. 1286, Dec. 2015.
A journal article with 2 authors
A. Sfeir and T. de Lange, “Removal of shelterin reveals the telomere end-protection problem,” Science, vol. 336, no. 6081, pp. 593–597, May 2012.
A journal article with 3 authors
M. Hulme, S. J. O’Neill, and S. Dessai, “Climate change. Is weather event attribution necessary for adaptation funding?,” Science, vol. 334, no. 6057, pp. 764–765, Nov. 2011.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
N. I. Hammer et al., “How do small water clusters bind an excess electron?,” Science, vol. 306, no. 5696, pp. 675–679, Oct. 2004.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P. Angueira and J. A. Romo, Microwave Line of Sight Link Engineering. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2012.
An edited book
E. Errami, M. Brocx, and V. Semeniuk, Eds., From Geoheritage to Geoparks: Case Studies from Africa and Beyond. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
D. G. Aggelis, “Acoustic Emission Analysis for NDE in Concrete,” in Innovative AE and NDT Techniques for On-Site Measurement of Concrete and Masonry Structures: State-of-the-Art Report of the RILEM Technical Committee 239-MCM, M. Ohtsu, Ed. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2016, pp. 69–88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Photonics Technology Letters.

Blog post
J. Fang, “Toothpaste Fluorine Comes From Long-Dead Stars,” IFLScience, 22-Aug-2014. .


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Child Support Enforcement: Leadership Essential to Implementing Effective Automated Systems,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, T-AIMD-97-162, Sep. 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. G. Tabano, “How Former Division I Student-Athletes Experienced Their Dual Undergraduate Roles: The Internal Competition for an Identity,” Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Mcbride, “When It’s O.K. to Pay for a Story,” New York Times, p. A23, 09-Jun-2015.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Photonics Technology Letters
AbbreviationIEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.
ISSN (print)1041-1135
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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