How to format your references using the IEEE Photonics Technology Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Photonics Technology Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. T. Gille, “Warming of the Southern Ocean since the 1950s,” Science, vol. 295, no. 5558, pp. 1275–1277, Feb. 2002.
A journal article with 2 authors
M. S. Dresselhaus and I. L. Thomas, “Alternative energy technologies,” Nature, vol. 414, no. 6861, pp. 332–337, Nov. 2001.
A journal article with 3 authors
J. Fischer, J. Baumgartner, and C. Marschner, “Synthesis and structure of sila-adamantane,” Science, vol. 310, no. 5749, p. 825, Nov. 2005.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. Raven et al., “Corrigendum: Cholangiocytes act as facultative liver stem cells during impaired hepatocyte regeneration,” Nature, vol. 555, no. 7696, p. 402, Mar. 2018.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
C. Scheller-Sheridan, Basic Guide to Dental Instruments. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., 2011.
An edited book
R. Lee, Ed., Computer and Information Science, vol. 566. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
B. Brubach, “Further Improvement in Approximating the Maximum Duo-Preservation String Mapping Problem,” in Algorithms in Bioinformatics: 16th International Workshop, WABI 2016, Aarhus, Denmark, August 22-24, 2016. Proceedings, M. Frith and C. N. Storm Pedersen, Eds. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016, pp. 52–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Photonics Technology Letters.

Blog post
D. Andrew, “Why We’re More Likely To Date Someone Who Has An Ex,” IFLScience, Nov. 09, 2016. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Building Partner Capacity: Actions Needed to Strengthen DOD Efforts to Assess the Performance of the Regional Centers for Security Studies,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-13-606, Jun. 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A. M. O’Connell, “Customer retention and leadership in the nonprofit healthcare organization,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Gurley, “London To Harlem Via Chelsea,” New York Times, p. E1, Apr. 18, 2013.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Photonics Technology Letters
AbbreviationIEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.
ISSN (print)1041-1135
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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