How to format your references using the IEEE Photonics Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Photonics Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Heisenberg, “Is free will an illusion?,” Nature, vol. 459, no. 7244, pp. 164–165, May 2009.
A journal article with 2 authors
V. R. Krishnaswamy and P. S. Korrapati, “Role of dermatopontin in re-epithelialization: implications on keratinocyte migration and proliferation,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 7385, Dec. 2014.
A journal article with 3 authors
K. Matsui, H. Yoshida, and Y. Ikuhara, “Nanocrystalline, ultra-degradation-resistant zirconia: its grain boundary nanostructure and nanochemistry,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 4758, Apr. 2014.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
I. Brunet et al., “The transcription factor Engrailed-2 guides retinal axons,” Nature, vol. 438, no. 7064, pp. 94–98, Nov. 2005.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
H. Arboleda and J.-C. Royer, Model-Driven and Software Product Line Engineering. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2012.
An edited book
G. E. Minton, Ed., John Bale’s “The Image of Both Churches,” vol. 6. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
L. E. Hombach and G. Walther, “Evaluation of CO2 Abatement Measures for (Bio-) Fuel Production,” in Logistics Management: Products, Actors, Technology - Proceedings of the German Academic Association for Business Research, Bremen, 2013, J. Dethloff, H.-D. Haasis, H. Kopfer, H. Kotzab, and J. Schönberger, Eds. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015, pp. 39–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Photonics Journal.

Blog post
S. Luntz, “Giant Craters Created By Enormous Seafloor Methane Explosions From The Last Ice Age,” IFLScience, Jun. 02, 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Mass Transit: Federal Participation in Transit Benefit Programs,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, RCED-93-163, Sep. 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
T. T. Thiagarajan, “A Simple and Effective Peak-To-Average Power Ratio Reduction Approach Based on Iterative Companding Transform and Filtering Framework of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Signal,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. B. Stewart, “How to Mend the Tax Code to Close Trump’s Loopholes,” New York Times, p. B1, Oct. 13, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Photonics Journal
AbbreviationIEEE Photonics J.
ISSN (print)1943-0655
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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