How to format your references using the IEEE Photonics Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Photonics Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
I. Ekeland I., “Mathematics. Curves and numbers,” Nature, vol. 405, no. 6788, pp. 748–749, Jun. 2000.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. Page and M. Ware, “Perspective: Close the knowledge gap,” Nature, vol. 525, no. 7570, p. S9, Sep. 2015.
A journal article with 3 authors
E. M. Standen, T. Y. Du, and H. C. E. Larsson, “Developmental plasticity and the origin of tetrapods,” Nature, vol. 513, no. 7516, pp. 54–58, Sep. 2014.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
P. J. C. Oliveira et al., “Land-use allocation protects the Peruvian Amazon,” Science, vol. 317, no. 5842, pp. 1233–1236, Aug. 2007.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
T. J. Morrison, Functional Analysis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2000.
An edited book
P. V. Devarajan and S. Jain, Eds., Targeted Drug Delivery : Concepts and Design. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
H. Tan, R. Kaliyaperumal, and N. Benis, “Ontology-Driven Construction of Domain Corpus with Frame Semantics Annotations,” in Computational Linguistics and Intelligent Text Processing: 13th International Conference, CICLing 2012, New Delhi, India, March 11-17, 2012, Proceedings, Part I, A. Gelbukh, Ed. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2012, pp. 54–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Photonics Journal.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “East Asian Maths Teaching Method Boosts English Children’s Progress By A Month,” IFLScience, 18-Jun-2015. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Social Security Administration: Risks Associated With Information Technology Investment Continue,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, AIMD-94-143, Sep. 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M. Hendry, “The Lonely Nineteenth Century: Loneliness and the Female Protagonist in the Victorian Novel,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Wieviorka, “France, at a loss without a struggle,” New York Times, p. 0, 10-Feb-2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Photonics Journal
AbbreviationIEEE Photonics J.
ISSN (print)1943-0655
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Other styles