How to format your references using the IEEE Photonics Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Photonics Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R. D. Launius, “Neil Armstrong (1930-2012),” Nature, vol. 489, no. 7416, p. 368, Sep. 2012.
A journal article with 2 authors
Q.-Z. Yin and S. B. Jacobsen, “Geochemistry: does U-Pb date Earth’s core formation?,” Nature, vol. 444, no. 7115, pp. E1; discussion E2-3, Nov. 2006.
A journal article with 3 authors
M. Wessling, L. G. Morcillo, and S. Abdu, “Nanometer-thick lateral polyelectrolyte micropatterns induce macrosopic electro-osmotic chaotic fluid instabilities,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 4294, Mar. 2014.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
T. Nakazaki et al., “Mobilization of a transposon in the rice genome,” Nature, vol. 421, no. 6919, pp. 170–172, Jan. 2003.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
E. J. Daubert, The Annual Campaign. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2009.
An edited book
G. Schwarzer, Meta-Analysis with R. in Use R! Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
A. Gecow, “Emergence of Chaos and Complexity During System Growth,” in From System Complexity to Emergent Properties, M. A. Aziz-Alaoui and C. Bertelle, Eds., in Understanding Complex Systems. , Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2009, pp. 115–154.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Photonics Journal.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Men’s Magazine Prints Editions Using HIV-Infected Blood To Tackle Stigma,” IFLScience. Accessed: Oct. 30, 2018. [Online]. Available:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Customs Service Modernization: Third Expenditure Plan Meets Legislative Conditions, but Cost Estimating Improvements Needed,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-02-908, Aug. 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
L. K. Matthews, “The impact of trait displaced aggression and social support on cardiovascular reactivity,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Drucker, E. Lipton, and M. Haberman, “Trump’s Family Still Benefiting From Businesses,” New York Times, p. A1, Mar. 31, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Photonics Journal
AbbreviationIEEE Photonics J.
ISSN (print)1943-0655
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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