How to format your references using the IEEE Photonics Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Photonics Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R. E. Lenski, “Twice as natural,” Nature, vol. 414, no. 6861, p. 255, Nov. 2001.
A journal article with 2 authors
R. Brookmeyer and N. Blades, “Prevention of inhalational anthrax in the U.S. outbreak,” Science, vol. 295, no. 5561, p. 1861, Mar. 2002.
A journal article with 3 authors
P. P. Rocha, J. Chaumeil, and J. A. Skok, “Molecular biology. Finding the right partner in a 3D genome,” Science, vol. 342, no. 6164, pp. 1333–1334, Dec. 2013.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S. Horie et al., “CD200R signaling inhibits pro-angiogenic gene expression by macrophages and suppresses choroidal neovascularization,” Sci. Rep., vol. 3, p. 3072, Oct. 2013.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
F. Burwick, Romanticism. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2015.
An edited book
B. Shen, Modelling Rock Fracturing Processes: A Fracture Mechanics Approach Using FRACOD. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
A. Horwich and G. Ross, “Circulating Tumor Markers,” in Principles of Molecular Oncology, M. H. Bronchud, M. A. Foote, G. Giaccone, O. Olopade, and P. Workman, Eds. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, 2008, pp. 107–116.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Photonics Journal.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Triassic Mass Extinction May Give Clues On How Oceans Will Be Affected By Climate Change,” IFLScience, Apr. 09, 2015. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “DOD’s Full-Time, Fully Funded Graduate and Undergraduate Education Programs,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, B-175773, Mar. 1974.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
P. Moua, “Differential functions of the kinesin-1 tail in Drosophila melanogaster transport processes,” Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
W. K. Rashbaum, S. Craig, and T. Kaplan, “Inquiry Is Said to Aim at Chief of State Senate,” New York Times, p. A1, Apr. 16, 2015.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Photonics Journal
AbbreviationIEEE Photonics J.
ISSN (print)1943-0655
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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