How to format your references using the eXPRESS Polymer Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for eXPRESS Polymer Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lane, J.: Science innovation. Assessing the impact of science funding. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324, 1273–1275 (2009).
A journal article with 2 authors
Glass, K.; Girvan, M.: Annotation enrichment analysis: an alternative method for evaluating the functional properties of gene sets. Scientific reports, 4, 4191 (2014).
A journal article with 3 authors
Sun, Q.; Haynes, K. F.; Zhou, X.: Differential undertaking response of a lower termite to congeneric and conspecific corpses. Scientific reports, 3, 1650 (2013).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Aoi, T.; Yae, K.; Nakagawa, M.; Ichisaka, T.; Okita, K.; Takahashi, K.; Chiba, T.; Yamanaka, S.: Generation of pluripotent stem cells from adult mouse liver and stomach cells. Science (New York, N.Y.), 321, 699–702 (2008).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sattler, K.: Thermische Trennverfahren; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, FRG; ISBN 9783527603329.
An edited book
Advanced Research on Computer Education, Simulation and Modeling: International Conference, CESM 2011, Wuhan, China, June 18-19, 2011. Proceedings, Part II; Lin, S., Huang, X., Eds.; Communications in Computer and Information Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg; Vol. 176; ISBN 9783642218019.
A chapter in an edited book
van der Sloot, B.; Zuiderveen Borgesius, F.: Google and Personal Data Protection. In Google and the Law: Empirical Approaches to Legal Aspects of Knowledge-Economy Business Models; Lopez-Tarruella, A., Ed.; Information Technology and Law Series; T. M. C. Asser Press: The Hague, The Netherlands, (2012); pp. 75–111 ISBN 9789067048453.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for eXPRESS Polymer Letters.

Blog post
Carpineti, A.: Molecular Knot Is The Tightest Tied Structure Yet Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Joint Strike Fighter: Significant Challenges and Decisions Ahead; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schreiber, J. S.: Discursive constructions of decline: Narratives of illness and financial stress among residents in assisted living. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M.: A Personal Quest For a White Shirt. New York Times (2013), E7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleeXPRESS Polymer Letters
ISSN (print)1778-618X

Other styles