How to format your references using the eXPRESS Polymer Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for eXPRESS Polymer Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Widera, A.: Physics. The advantages of extra entanglement. Science (New York, N.Y.), 344, 160–161 (2014).
A journal article with 2 authors
Vinnakota, R. K.; Genov, D. A.: Terahertz optoelectronics with surface plasmon polariton diode. Scientific reports, 4, 4899 (2014).
A journal article with 3 authors
Kohl, K. P.; Jones, C. D.; Sekelsky, J.: Evolution of an MCM complex in flies that promotes meiotic crossovers by blocking BLM helicase. Science (New York, N.Y.), 338, 1363–1365 (2012).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kim, B.; Kwon, S.; Mun, H.; An, S.; Jhe, W.: Energy dissipation of nanoconfined hydration layer: long-range hydration on the hydrophilic solid surface. Scientific reports, 4, 6499 (2014).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Breitmaier, E.: Vom NMR-Spektrum zur Strukturformel organischer Verbindungen; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany; ISBN 9783527662296.
An edited book
Environmental Biotechnology; Wang, L. K., Ivanov, V., Tay, J.-H., Eds.; Handbook of Environmental Engineering; 1st ed.; Humana Press: Totowa, NJ; Vol. 10; ISBN 9781588291660.
A chapter in an edited book
Fuleihan, G. E.-H.: Symptomatic Primary Hyperparathyroidism Medical Therapy. In Handbook of Parathyroid Diseases: A Case-Based Practical Guide; A, K. M. A., Clark, O. H., Eds.; Springer US: Boston, MA, (2012); pp. 55–73 ISBN 9781461421634.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for eXPRESS Polymer Letters.

Blog post
Luntz, S.: Low Fat Chocolate Has Potential To Electrify Production Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: National Airspace System: FAA’s Approach to Its New Communications System Appears Prudent, but Challenges Remain; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Corbets, J. B.: Evaluating System Architecture Quality and Architecting Team Performance Using Information Quality Theory. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University: Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Himelstein, L.: Hotel Buffets, a Culprit of Waste, Get Downsized. New York Times (2017), D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleeXPRESS Polymer Letters
ISSN (print)1778-618X

Other styles