How to format your references using the eXPRESS Polymer Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for eXPRESS Polymer Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ward, M. D.: Materials science. Plastic sandwiches a la carte. Nature, 405, 293–294 (2000).
A journal article with 2 authors
Sharon, D.; Grinvald, A.: Dynamics and constancy in cortical spatiotemporal patterns of orientation processing. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295, 512–515 (2002).
A journal article with 3 authors
Buckley, S. A.; Clark, K. A.; Evershed, R. P.: Complex organic chemical balms of Pharaonic animal mummies. Nature, 431, 294–299 (2004).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Okada, A.; Charron, F.; Morin, S.; Shin, D. S.; Wong, K.; Fabre, P. J.; Tessier-Lavigne, M.; McConnell, S. K.: Boc is a receptor for sonic hedgehog in the guidance of commissural axons. Nature, 444, 369–373 (2006).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ventre, D.: Information Warfare; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ; ISBN 9781119004721.
An edited book
Personal Satellite Services: 4th International ICST Conference, PSATS 2012, Bradford, UK, March 22-23, 2012. Revised Selected Papers; Pillai, P., Shorey, R., Ferro, E., Eds.; Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg; Vol. 52; ISBN 9783642367861.
A chapter in an edited book
Mostofi, Y.; Ghaffarkhah, A.: Kalman Filtering Over Wireless Fading Channels. In Wireless Networking Based Control; Mazumder, S. K., Ed.; Springer: New York, NY, (2011); pp. 103–134 ISBN 9781441973924.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for eXPRESS Polymer Letters.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Good Riddance To Thailand’s Infamous ‘Tiger Temple’ Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Airport and Airway Trust Fund: Less Than Half of Noncommercial Jet Fuel Tax Receipts Are Transferred; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lee, A. M.: Examining the socially responsible leadership development outcomes of study abroad experiences for college seniors. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park: College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S.: Magazine Is New in Moscow, but Looks Familiar to New York. New York Times (2004), A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleeXPRESS Polymer Letters
ISSN (print)1778-618X

Other styles