How to format your references using the eXPRESS Polymer Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for eXPRESS Polymer Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stringer, C.: Human evolution: Small remains still pose big problems. Nature, 514, 427–429 (2014).
A journal article with 2 authors
Mahadevan, L.; Rica, S.: Self-organized origami. Science (New York, N.Y.), 307, 1740 (2005).
A journal article with 3 authors
Anderson, B.; Cole, W. W.; Barrett, S. C. H.: Botany: specialized bird perch aids cross-pollination. Nature, 435, 41–42 (2005).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Tarassov, K.; Messier, V.; Landry, C. R.; Radinovic, S.; Serna Molina, M. M.; Shames, I.; Malitskaya, Y.; Vogel, J.; Bussey, H.; Michnick, S. W.: An in vivo map of the yeast protein interactome. Science (New York, N.Y.), 320, 1465–1470 (2008).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Thompson, G. R.: Reading the American Novel 1865-1914; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK; ISBN 9781444344271.
An edited book
Nuel Belnap on Indeterminism and Free Action; Müller, T., Ed.; Outstanding Contributions to Logic; Springer International Publishing: Cham; Vol. 2; ISBN 9783319017532.
A chapter in an edited book
Ugurlu, T.; Zeitler, A.; Kheyrollahi, A.: HttpClient. In Pro ASP.NET Web API: HTTP Web Services in ASP.NET; Zeitler, A., Kheyrollahi, A., Eds.; Apress: Berkeley, CA, (2013); pp. 75–94 ISBN 9781430247258.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for eXPRESS Polymer Letters.

Blog post
Andrew, D.: The Amazing Things Poo Can Tell You About An Animal’s Health Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Space Exploration: Cost, Schedule, and Performance of NASA’s Ulysses Mission to the Sun; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Buchigari, S. R.: A tool to automate the process of Unit testing of webapplications (Criterion V1.0). Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G.: Far From London, Seeing the Big Picture. New York Times (2012), B17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleeXPRESS Polymer Letters
ISSN (print)1778-618X

Other styles