How to format your references using the eXPRESS Polymer Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for eXPRESS Polymer Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Service, R. F.: CHEMISTRY NOBEL: Getting a Charge Out of Plastics. Science (New York, N.Y.), 290, 425–427 (2000).
A journal article with 2 authors
Lewis, S. L.; Maslin, M. A.: Defining the anthropocene. Nature, 519, 171–180 (2015).
A journal article with 3 authors
Hayashi, K.; Hasegawa, J.; Matsunaga, S.: The boundary of the meristematic and elongation zones in roots: endoreduplication precedes rapid cell expansion. Scientific reports, 3, 2723 (2013).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bausch, A. R.; Bowick, M. J.; Cacciuto, A.; Dinsmore, A. D.; Hsu, M. F.; Nelson, D. R.; Nikolaides, M. G.; Travesset, A.; Weitz, D. A.: Grain boundary scars and spherical crystallography. Science (New York, N.Y.), 299, 1716–1718 (2003).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lednicer, D.: Antineoplastic Drugs; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK; ISBN 9781118892572.
An edited book
Baxley, T. P.: (In)visible Presence: Feminist Counter-Narratives of Young Adult Literature by Women of Color; Boston, G. H., Ed.; Transgressions, Cultural Studies and Education; SensePublishers: Rotterdam; Vol. 102; ISBN 9789462096899.
A chapter in an edited book
Jin, C.; Morita, C. T.: Chemokine biology of NK cells and γδ T cells. In Chemokine Biology — Basic Research and Clinical Application: Volume I: Immunobiology of Chemokines; Moser, B., Letts, G. L., Neote, K., Eds.; Progress in Inflammation Research; Birkhäuser: Basel, (2006); pp. 59–78 ISBN 9783764368258.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for eXPRESS Polymer Letters.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Sexual Harassment Compromises Graduate Students’ Safety Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Airport and Airway Trust Fund: Declining Balance Raises Concerns over Ability to Meet Future Demands; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yu, B.: Periodic Motions and Bifurcation Tree in a Periodically Excited Oscillator with Quadratic Nonlinearity. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University: Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sengupta, S.; Hubbard, B.: Truce That Trump Announced at G-20 Survives Its First Day in Southwestern Syria. New York Times (2017), A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleeXPRESS Polymer Letters
ISSN (print)1778-618X

Other styles