How to format your references using the IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
W. A. Hendrickson, “Jerome Karle (1918-2013),” Nature, vol. 499, no. 7459, p. 410, Jul. 2013.
A journal article with 2 authors
P. J. Fraser and R. L. Shelmerdine, “Dogfish hair cells sense hydrostatic pressure,” Nature, vol. 415, no. 6871, pp. 495–496, Jan. 2002.
A journal article with 3 authors
L. Sun, J. Wang, and E. Bonaccurso, “Conductivity of individual particles measured by a microscopic four-point-probe method,” Sci. Rep., vol. 3, p. 1991, 2013.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J. Li et al., “Modulation of an RNA-binding protein by abscisic-acid-activated protein kinase,” Nature, vol. 418, no. 6899, pp. 793–797, Aug. 2002.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
W. Ruske, Verlag Chemie 1921-1971. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 1971.
An edited book
D. B. Chirila, Introduction to Modern Fortran for the Earth System Sciences. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
K.-L. Du and M. N. S. Swamy, “Multilayer Perceptrons: Other Learning Techniques,” in Neural Networks and Statistical Learning, M. N. S. Swamy, Ed., London: Springer, 2014, pp. 127–157.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking.

Blog post
T. Hale, “Ridiculously Cute New Species Of Lemur Discovered In Madagascar,” IFLScience, Oct. 13, 2015. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Space Projects: Status and Remaining Challenges of the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, NSIAD-92-77, Feb. 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R. D. Garcia, “Designing an autonomous helicopter testbed: From conception through implementation,” Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Anderson, “Is This the Best Education Money Can Buy?,” New York Times, p. MM46, May 02, 2013.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking
AbbreviationJ. Opt. Commun. Netw.
ISSN (print)1943-0620
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications

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