How to format your references using the IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D. J. Mabberley, “Plant science. Exploring terra incognita,” Science, vol. 324, no. 5926, p. 472, Apr. 2009.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. R. Spencer and T. Denk, “Formation of Iapetus’ extreme albedo dichotomy by exogenically triggered thermal ice migration,” Science, vol. 327, no. 5964, pp. 432–435, Jan. 2010.
A journal article with 3 authors
J. A. Martens, L. Laprade, and F. Winston, “Intergenic transcription is required to repress the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SER3 gene,” Nature, vol. 429, no. 6991, pp. 571–574, Jun. 2004.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
L. Thomas, M. Hayashi, X. Jiang, R. Moriya, C. Rettner, and S. S. P. Parkin, “Oscillatory dependence of current-driven magnetic domain wall motion on current pulse length,” Nature, vol. 443, no. 7108, pp. 197–200, Sep. 2006.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Edgerton, A Practitioner’s Guide to Effective Maritime and Port Security. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2013.
An edited book
G. Kovács and P. Hoskin, Eds., Interstitial Prostate Brachytherapy: LDR-PDR-HDR. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
C. R. Cooper, R. A. Satcher, L. A. Gurski, and K. L. van Golen, “Mechanism of Metastasis to Bone: The Role of Bone Marrow Endothelium,” in Bone and Cancer, F. Bronner and M. C. Farach-Carson, Eds. London: Springer, 2009, pp. 57–71.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking.

Blog post
T. Hale, “Quadrantid Meteor Shower Will Light Up The Skies On Tuesday And Wednesday Night,” IFLScience, 03-Jan-2017. .


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Request for Assistance on Allegations From K. R. Higgins Concerning Planning Research Corporation’s Contract at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, LCD-77-345, Apr. 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. W. Woodworth, “Secure Semantic Search over Encrypted Big Data in the Cloud,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Kishkovsky, “Aleksei German, 74, Director of Anti-Soviet Movies,” New York Times, p. A20, 24-Feb-2013.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking
AbbreviationJ. Opt. Commun. Netw.
ISSN (print)1943-0620
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications

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