How to format your references using the IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D. W. Christianson, “Biochemistry. Five golden rings,” Science, vol. 311, no. 5766, pp. 1382–1383, Mar. 2006.
A journal article with 2 authors
M. F. Meier and M. B. Dyurgerov, “Sea level changes. How Alaska affects the world,” Science, vol. 297, no. 5580, pp. 350–351, Jul. 2002.
A journal article with 3 authors
D. A. Clark, P. P. Mitra, and S. S. Wang, “Scalable architecture in mammalian brains,” Nature, vol. 411, no. 6834, pp. 189–193, May 2001.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D. Egli, J. Rosains, G. Birkhoff, and K. Eggan, “Developmental reprogramming after chromosome transfer into mitotic mouse zygotes,” Nature, vol. 447, no. 7145, pp. 679–685, Jun. 2007.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R. Lenk and C. Lenk, Practical Lighting Design With LEDs. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2011.
An edited book
P. Strand, M. K. Sneve, and A. V. Pechkurov, Eds., Radiation and Environmental Safety in North-West Russia: Use of Impact Assessments and Risk Estimation. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
J. N. Hawkins, “The Predicament of the Quest for WCU Status and Seeking an Asian Flagship University,” in The New Flagship University: Changing the Paradigm from Global Ranking to National Relevancy, J. A. Douglass, Ed. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US, 2016, pp. 115–138.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Health Check: five supplements that may help with depression,” IFLScience, 02-Sep-2014. .


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Need for the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration To Improve Certain Aspects of Its Management of the Law Enforcement Education Program,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 089486, Oct. 1973.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
K. P. Amanoua, “Langue et identité dans les milieux populaires québécois et antillais,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Crow, “Coffee, Two Eggs Over Easy And a Sketch of a Landmark,” New York Times, p. 146, 29-Apr-2001.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking
AbbreviationJ. Opt. Commun. Netw.
ISSN (print)1943-0620
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications

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