How to format your references using the IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D. Goldston, “The climate to get things done,” Nature, vol. 458, no. 7234, p. 21, Mar. 2009.
A journal article with 2 authors
M. T. Villaume and P. S. Baran, “Organic chemistry: Reactivity tamed one bond at a time,” Nature, vol. 513, no. 7518, pp. 324–325, Sep. 2014.
A journal article with 3 authors
A. E. Willner, J. Wang, and H. Huang, “Applied physics. A different angle on light communications,” Science, vol. 337, no. 6095, pp. 655–656, Aug. 2012.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M. C. Bersten et al., “A surge of light at the birth of a supernova,” Nature, vol. 554, no. 7693, pp. 497–499, Feb. 2018.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P. Barnes and M. Davies, Sub-Contracting under the JCT 2005 Forms. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009.
An edited book
P. F. Biehl, Heritage in the Context of Globalization: Europe and the Americas, vol. 8. New York, NY: Springer, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Fogue, P. Garrido, F. J. Martinez, J.-C. Cano, C. T. Calafate, and P. Manzoni, “Using Data Mining and Vehicular Networks to Estimate the Severity of Traffic Accidents,” in Management Intelligent Systems: First International Symposium, J. Casillas, F. J. Martínez-López, and J. M. Corchado Rodríguez, Eds. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2012, pp. 37–46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking.

Blog post
K. Hamilton, “Everyone’s Different: What Parts Of The Brain Make Our Personalities So Unique?,” IFLScience, Sep. 30, 2016. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Telecommunications: Issues Related to Competition and Subscriber Rates in the Cable Television Industry,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-04-8, Oct. 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
K. Kay, “A support group for older adult males struggling with depression: A grant proposal,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. M. Grynbaum, “Lead Story,” New York Times, p. ST1, Jul. 29, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking
AbbreviationJ. Opt. Commun. Netw.
ISSN (print)1943-0620
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications

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