How to format your references using the IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. Noda, “Applied physics. Seeking the ultimate nanolaser,” Science, vol. 314, no. 5797, pp. 260–261, Oct. 2006.
A journal article with 2 authors
S. Hellweg and L. Milà i Canals, “Emerging approaches, challenges and opportunities in life cycle assessment,” Science, vol. 344, no. 6188, pp. 1109–1113, Jun. 2014.
A journal article with 3 authors
P. Gorzelak, E. Głuchowski, and M. A. Salamon, “Reassessing the improbability of a muscular crinoid stem,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 6049, Aug. 2014.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D. Bansal et al., “Defective membrane repair in dysferlin-deficient muscular dystrophy,” Nature, vol. 423, no. 6936, pp. 168–172, May 2003.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
F. M. Dunnivant and E. Anders, A Basic Introduction to Pollutant Fate and Transport. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2005.
An edited book
A. Minai, D. Braha, and Y. Bar-Yam, Eds., Unifying Themes in Complex Systems: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Complex Systems. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
V. Lefort, C. Knibbe, G. Beslon, and J. Favrel, “Simultaneous Optimization of Weights and Structure of an RBF Neural Network,” in Artificial Evolution: 7th International Conference, Evolution Artificielle, EA 2005, Lille, France, October 26-28, 2005, Revised Selected Papers, E.-G. Talbi, P. Liardet, P. Collet, E. Lutton, and M. Schoenauer, Eds., in Lecture Notes in Computer Science. , Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2006, pp. 49–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking.

Blog post
S. Luntz, “Oxytocin-Lowering Medical Conditions May Reduce Empathy,” IFLScience. Accessed: Oct. 30, 2018. [Online]. Available:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Federal-Aid Highways: FHWA Has Improved Its Risk Management Approach, but Needs to Improve Its Oversight of Project Costs,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-09-751, Jul. 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
T. E. Wellman, “Employment Discrimination against Military Spouses: Illegal Contrary to Popular Belief and Practice,” Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Hodara, “Suburban Touches With a Bustling Downtown,” New York Times, p. RE9, Feb. 15, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking
AbbreviationJ. Opt. Commun. Netw.
ISSN (print)1943-0620
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications

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