How to format your references using the Frontiers in Molecular Innate Immunity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Molecular Innate Immunity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bruno, J. F. (2014). Ecology. How do coral reefs recover? Science 345, 879–880.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ibáñez, M., and Cabot, A. (2013). Chemistry. All change for nanocrystals. Science 340, 935–936.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zeng, B., Gao, Y., and Bartoli, F. J. (2013). Ultrathin nanostructured metals for highly transmissive plasmonic subtractive color filters. Sci. Rep. 3, 2840.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hart, D. O., Raha, T., Lawson, N. D., and Green, M. R. (2007). Initiation of zebrafish haematopoiesis by the TATA-box-binding protein-related factor Trf3. Nature 450, 1082–1085.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Michael, E., Gillian, H., Stefan, K., and Alex, L. (2012). Gramsci. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An edited book
Tiwari, R. (2014). Aiming Big with Small Cars: Emergence of a Lead Market in India. , ed. C. Herstatt Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Sulc, M., and Matas, J. (2015). “Fast Features Invariant to Rotation and Scale of Texture,” in Computer Vision - ECCV 2014 Workshops: Zurich, Switzerland, September 6-7 and 12, 2014, Proceedings, Part II Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. L. Agapito, M. M. Bronstein, and C. Rother (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 47–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Molecular Innate Immunity.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014). GM Mosquitoes Set To Be Released In Brazil To Combat Dengue. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1996). Hispanic Employment Statistics. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kong, W. (2010). The Role of MicroRNA-155 in Human Breast Cancer.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
KATIE KELLY; Katie Kelly is the TV critic for WNBC-TV in New York (1987). When You’d Rather Keep A Low Profile. New York Times, 1033.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bruno, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Ibáñez and Cabot, 2013; Bruno, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ibáñez and Cabot, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Hart et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Molecular Innate Immunity
AbbreviationFront. Immunol.
ISSN (online)1664-3224

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