How to format your references using the Frontiers in Molecular Innate Immunity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Molecular Innate Immunity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Asplund, M. (2005). Astronomy. A stellar swan-song. Science 308, 210–211.
A journal article with 2 authors
Campbell, C. S., and Desai, A. (2013). Tension sensing by Aurora B kinase is independent of survivin-based centromere localization. Nature 497, 118–121.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang, X., Chen, X., and Wang, L. (2014). Random allocation of pies promotes the evolution of fairness in the Ultimatum Game. Sci. Rep. 4, 4534.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Tan, Y., Zhang, S., Zhang, S., Zhang, Y., and Liu, N. (2013). Response of microchip solid-state laser to external frequency-shifted feedback and its applications. Sci. Rep. 3, 2912.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Alsop, A. (2013). Continuing Professional Development in Health and Social Care. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Sathyajith, M., and Philip, G. S. eds. (2011). Advances in Wind Energy Conversion Technology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Bigerna, S., Bollino, C. A., and Micheli, S. (2015). “Strategic Choices for Sustainability at EU Regional Level,” in The Sustainability of Renewable Energy in Europe, eds. C. A. Bollino and S. Micheli (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 87–115.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Molecular Innate Immunity.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015). EPA Accidentally Contaminates River With Millions Of Gallons Of Toxic Waste. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2009). Aviation Security: Status of Transportation Security Inspector Workforce. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chatterji, S. (2016). A novel agent-based dynamic load balancing model for cloud networks.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. (2017). When the Gay Best Friend Is the Odd Man Out. New York Times, C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Asplund, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Asplund, 2005; Campbell and Desai, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Campbell and Desai, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Tan et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Molecular Innate Immunity
AbbreviationFront. Immunol.
ISSN (online)1664-3224

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