How to format your references using the Frontiers in Molecular Innate Immunity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Molecular Innate Immunity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pain, E. (2005). The class of 2005. Belgium: a particle physicist on track. Science 310, 521.
A journal article with 2 authors
Guenther, M. G., and Young, R. A. (2010). Transcription. Repressive transcription. Science 329, 150–151.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kobayashi, T., Saito, T., and Ohtani, H. (2001). Real-time spectroscopy of transition states in bacteriorhodopsin during retinal isomerization. Nature 414, 531–534.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Törnroth-Horsefield, S., Wang, Y., Hedfalk, K., Johanson, U., Karlsson, M., Tajkhorshid, E., et al. (2006). Structural mechanism of plant aquaporin gating. Nature 439, 688–694.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Knowles, R. (2008). 150 Contractual Problems and their Solutions. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
An edited book
Gross, Z., Davies, L., and Diab, A.-K. eds. (2013). Gender, Religion and Education in a Chaotic Postmodern World. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Privat, M., and Warner, R. (2011). “Working with Data Objects,” in Pro Core Data for iOS: Data Access and Persistence Engine for iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch, ed. R. Warner (Berkeley, CA: Apress), 133–186.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Molecular Innate Immunity.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2016). SpaceX Given Second Mission By NASA To Launch Astronauts Into Space. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2015). Information Security: FAA Needs to Address Weaknesses in Air Traffic Control Systems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tofthagen, C. S. (2008). Development and psychometric evaluation of the Chemotherapy Induced Peripheral Neuropathy Assessment Tool.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. (2012). ‘Everyone Wants to See Zara.’ New York Times, B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pain, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Pain, 2005; Guenther and Young, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Guenther and Young, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Törnroth-Horsefield et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Molecular Innate Immunity
AbbreviationFront. Immunol.
ISSN (online)1664-3224

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