How to format your references using the Frontiers in Molecular Innate Immunity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Molecular Innate Immunity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goudsmit, J. (2009). Obituary: Daniel Carleton Gajdusek (1923-2008). Nature 457, 394.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mongiat, L. A., and Schinder, A. F. (2014). Neuroscience. A price to pay for adult neurogenesis. Science 344, 594–595.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bortnik, J., Thorne, R. M., and Meredith, N. P. (2008). The unexpected origin of plasmaspheric hiss from discrete chorus emissions. Nature 452, 62–66.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Koebel, C. M., Vermi, W., Swann, J. B., Zerafa, N., Rodig, S. J., Old, L. J., et al. (2007). Adaptive immunity maintains occult cancer in an equilibrium state. Nature 450, 903–907.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bains, G. (2015). Cultural DNA. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Pisani, M. ed. (2012). Aging and Lung Disease: A Clinical Guide. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.
A chapter in an edited book
Riemenschneider, M. J., and Reifenberger, G. (2008). “Histology and Molecular Genetics,” in Primary Optic Nerve Sheath Meningioma Medical Radiology., eds. B. Jeremic and S. Pitz (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 55–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Molecular Innate Immunity.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016). These Are The Worst Stings In The World, According To A Guy Who’s Experienced Them All. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1988). Transition Series: NASA Issues. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nguyen, D. N. (2012). Career decision process of first generation Vietnamese American college students.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Eligon, J., and Martin, J. (2017). Kansas Republican Survives Tight Congressional Race to Win House Seat. New York Times, A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Goudsmit, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Goudsmit, 2009; Mongiat and Schinder, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mongiat and Schinder, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Koebel et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Molecular Innate Immunity
AbbreviationFront. Immunol.
ISSN (online)1664-3224

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