How to format your references using the Frontiers in Molecular Innate Immunity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Molecular Innate Immunity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Abbott, A. (2011). Dementia: a problem for our age. Nature 475, S2-4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Xu, L., and Chen, H. (2014). Logarithm conformal mapping brings the cloaking effect. Sci. Rep. 4, 6862.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang, Z., Wang, W., and Qiu, B. (2014). Oceanic mass transport by mesoscale eddies. Science 345, 322–324.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Luminet, J.-P., Weeks, J. R., Riazuelo, A., Lehoucq, R., and Uzan, J.-P. (2003). Dodecahedral space topology as an explanation for weak wide-angle temperature correlations in the cosmic microwave background. Nature 425, 593–595.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jenkinson, J., Hyde, T., and Ahmad, S. (2008). Building Blocks for Learning: Occupational Therapy Approaches. Chichester, West Sussex, United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Rosenthal, D. L., Wojcik, E. M., and Kurtycz, D. F. I. eds. (2016). The Paris System for Reporting Urinary Cytology. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Poggi, I., and Vincze, L. (2009). “Gesture, Gaze and Persuasive Strategies in Political Discourse,” in Multimodal Corpora: From Models of Natural Interaction to Systems and Applications Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. M. Kipp, J.-C. Martin, P. Paggio, and D. Heylen (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 73–92.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Molecular Innate Immunity.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015). Surgeon Finds Twin In Woman’s Brain. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1971). Office of Education Should Improve Procedures To Recover Defaulted Loans Under the Guaranteed Student Loan Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yoon, Y. (2010). Nano-tribology of discrete track recording media.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED, M. J. (2017). A Mattress Maker Strikes a Deal With Target. New York Times, B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Abbott, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Abbott, 2011; Xu and Chen, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Xu and Chen, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Luminet et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Molecular Innate Immunity
AbbreviationFront. Immunol.
ISSN (online)1664-3224

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