How to format your references using the Australasian Emergency Care citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Australasian Emergency Care. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Todes D. Global Darwin: Contempt for competition. Nature 2009;462:36–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Davies IW, Welch CJ. Looking forward in pharmaceutical process chemistry. Science 2009;325:701–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhou H, Guan H, Chi B. Record of winter monsoon strength. Nature 2007;450:E10-1; discussion E11.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Huang T, Sun L, Long N, Wang Y, Huang W. Penguin tissue as a proxy for relative krill abundance in East Antarctica during the Holocene. Sci Rep 2013;3:2807.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J.G. Upton G. Categorical Data Analysis by Example. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Bos L, Dumay A, Goldschmidt L, Verhenneman G, Yogesan K, editors. Handbook of Digital Homecare: Successes and Failures. vol. 3. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Charleer S, Klerkx J, Duval E, De Laet T, Verbert K. Creating Effective Learning Analytics Dashboards: Lessons Learnt. In: Verbert K, Sharples M, Klobučar T, editors. Adaptive and Adaptable Learning: 11th European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning, EC-TEL 2016, Lyon, France, September 13-16, 2016, Proceedings, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016, p. 42–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Australasian Emergency Care.

Blog post
Evans K. Most Vitamins Are Useless, But There’s One You Could Probably Use. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Farmers Home Administration Needs To Better Plan, Direct, Develop, and Control Its Computer-Based Unified Management Information System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Adams S. A study of childhood eating habits in the United States and their association with race and gender. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard B. Missile Strike Signals a New Reality in Syria for Friends and Foes Alike. New York Times 2017:A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAustralasian Emergency Care
ISSN (print)2588-994X

Other styles