How to format your references using the IEEE MultiMedia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE MultiMedia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D. Carucci, “Know thine enemy,” Nature, vol. 430, no. 7002, pp. 944–945, Aug. 2004.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. A. Buss and T. Agapie, “Four-electron deoxygenative reductive coupling of carbon monoxide at a single metal site,” Nature, vol. 529, no. 7584, pp. 72–75, Jan. 2016.
A journal article with 3 authors
E. Bell, L. Rowen, and L. Hood, “Publication rights for sequence data producers,” Science, vol. 290, no. 5497, pp. 1696b–8b, Dec. 2000.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
V. Reyes-Garcia et al., “Ethnobotanical knowledge shared widely among Tsimane’ Amerindians, Bolivia,” Science, vol. 299, no. 5613, p. 1707, Mar. 2003.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Yener and O. Dundar, Expert Android ® Studio. Indianapolis, Indiana: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2016.
An edited book
R. Hähnle, J. Knoop, T. Margaria, D. Schreiner, and B. Steffen, Eds., Leveraging Applications of Formal Methods, Verification, and Validation: International Workshops, SARS 2011 and MLSC 2011, Held Under the Auspices of ISoLA 2011 in Vienna, Austria, October 17-18, 2011. Revised Selected Papers, vol. 336. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
J. Herranz, F. Laguillaumie, B. Libert, and C. Ràfols, “Short Attribute-Based Signatures for Threshold Predicates,” in Topics in Cryptology – CT-RSA 2012: The Cryptographers’ Track at the RSA Conference 2012, San Francisco, CA, USA, February 27 – March 2, 2012. Proceedings, O. Dunkelman, Ed. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2012, pp. 51–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE MultiMedia.

Blog post
J. Fang, “Solar Plane to Attempt Round-the-World Flight,” IFLScience, Apr. 10, 2014. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “A Bibliography of Documents Issued by the GAO on Matters Related to: ADP, IRM and Telecommunications,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, IMTEC-85-9, Apr. 1985.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
B. S. Hardiman, “Resilience of Forest Carbon Storage through Disturbance and Succession,” Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Greenhouse, “Justices Reject Suit on Federal Money for Faith-Based Office,” New York Times, p. A18, Jun. 26, 2007.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE MultiMedia
ISSN (print)1070-986X
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Hardware and Architecture
Signal Processing
Media Technology

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