How to format your references using the IEEE MultiMedia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE MultiMedia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D. Singh Chawla, “‘Living figures’ make their debut,” Nature, vol. 521, no. 7550, p. 112, May 2015.
A journal article with 2 authors
K. R. Foster and F. L. Ratnieks, “Facultative worker policing in a wasp,” Nature, vol. 407, no. 6805, pp. 692–693, Oct. 2000.
A journal article with 3 authors
S. Ilonidis, J. Zhao, and A. Kosovichev, “Detection of emerging sunspot regions in the solar interior,” Science, vol. 333, no. 6045, pp. 993–996, Aug. 2011.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J. Johnson, J. Canning, T. Kaneko, J. K. Pru, and J. L. Tilly, “Germline stem cells and follicular renewal in the postnatal mammalian ovary,” Nature, vol. 428, no. 6979, pp. 145–150, Mar. 2004.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
V. J. Wiebe, Drug Therapy for Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2015.
An edited book
Y. P. Kalmykov, Ed., Recent Advances in Broadband Dielectric Spectroscopy. in NATO Science for Peace and Security Series B: Physics and Biophysics. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
G. Graube and I. Mammes, “Pre-University Engineering Education in Germany,” in Pre-university Engineering Education, M. J. de Vries, L. Gumaelius, and I.-B. Skogh, Eds., Rotterdam: SensePublishers, 2016, pp. 47–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE MultiMedia.

Blog post
A. Carpineti, “Evidence Mounts For The Existence Of Planet Nine,” IFLScience, Oct. 20, 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “DOD Business Systems Modernization: Key Marine Corps System Acquisition Needs to Be Better Justified, Defined, and Managed,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-08-822, Jul. 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R. W. Perez, “Stepping Stone or Stumbling Block? The Impact of Prior Military Service on Hiring Managers’ Perceptions of Warmth, Competence, and Hirability,” Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Vecsey, “Petke Departs, Certain He Gave All That He Could,” New York Times, p. SP9, Oct. 31, 2010.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE MultiMedia
ISSN (print)1070-986X
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Hardware and Architecture
Signal Processing
Media Technology

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