How to format your references using the IEEE MultiMedia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE MultiMedia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P. D. Killworth, “Comment on ‘Oceanic Rossby waves acting as a “hay rake” for ecosystem floating by-products,’” Science, vol. 304, no. 5669, pp. 390; author reply 390, Apr. 2004.
A journal article with 2 authors
R. Lumaret and N. Ouazzani, “Plant genetics. Ancient wild olives in Mediterranean forests,” Nature, vol. 413, no. 6857, p. 700, Oct. 2001.
A journal article with 3 authors
L. Xu, M.-L. Yin, and S. F. Liu, “Ag(x)@WO₃ core-shell nanostructure for LSP enhanced chemical sensors,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 6745, Oct. 2014.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J. Yu, J. Xiao, X. Ren, K. Lao, and X. S. Xie, “Probing gene expression in live cells, one protein molecule at a time,” Science, vol. 311, no. 5767, pp. 1600–1603, Mar. 2006.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
N. Cooper, K. Forrest, and P. Cramp, Essential Guide to Generic Skills. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2008.
An edited book
E. E. Gdoutos, Ed., Experimental Analysis of Nano and Engineering Materials and Structures: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Experimental Mechanics, Alexandroupolis, Greece, July 1–6, 2007. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Y. Li, E. H. Corder, and L. S. Corder, “Disability Patterns for Us Elderly Nursing Home Residents Over Two Decades: Findings from the 1973 to 1997 National Nursing Home Surveys,” in Longer Life and Healthy Aging, Z. Yi, E. M. Crimmins, Y. Carrière, and J.-M. Robine, Eds., in International Studies in Population. , Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2006, pp. 35–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE MultiMedia.

Blog post
S. Luntz, “Has The First Dark Matter Particle Been Found?,” IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Review of Ohio State Plan for the Education of Handicapped Children,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 088676, Apr. 1976.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D. B. Bolman, “Examining the Relationship Between Technology Leadership Behaviors and Project Success,” Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Branch, “The Science Behind the Squeak,” New York Times, p. D1, Mar. 17, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE MultiMedia
ISSN (print)1070-986X
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Hardware and Architecture
Signal Processing
Media Technology

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