How to format your references using the IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
I. Fuyuno, “Olympus finds market rival hard to swallow,” Nature, vol. 438, no. 7070, p. 913, Dec. 2005.
A journal article with 2 authors
A. Wohlers and B. J. Wood, “A Mercury-like component of early Earth yields uranium in the core and high mantle (142)Nd,” Nature, vol. 520, no. 7547, pp. 337–340, Apr. 2015.
A journal article with 3 authors
C. L. Asbury, A. N. Fehr, and S. M. Block, “Kinesin moves by an asymmetric hand-over-hand mechanism,” Science, vol. 302, no. 5653, pp. 2130–2134, Dec. 2003.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M. J. Mandel, M. S. Wollenberg, E. V. Stabb, K. L. Visick, and E. G. Ruby, “A single regulatory gene is sufficient to alter bacterial host range,” Nature, vol. 458, no. 7235, pp. 215–218, Mar. 2009.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
T. H. Nguyen, Leaders and Innovators. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2016.
An edited book
A. Stahl, Ed., Anti-Angiogenic Therapy in Ophthalmology. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
S. Klement, A. Madany Mamlouk, and T. Martinetz, “Reliability of Cross-Validation for SVMs in High-Dimensional, Low Sample Size Scenarios,” in Artificial Neural Networks - ICANN 2008: 18th International Conference, Prague, Czech Republic, September 3-6, 2008, Proceedings, Part I, V. Kůrková, R. Neruda, and J. Koutník, Eds. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2008, pp. 41–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics.

Blog post
J. Fang, “Court Recognizes Chimpanzees As Legal Persons,” IFLScience, Apr. 23, 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Airport Safety Inspection Program Needed To Improve Flight Safety of Civil Aircraft,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, B-164497(1), Jan. 1971.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
I. C. Kuru, “Time-Dependent Vehicle Routing and Assignment in No-Notice Evacuations,” Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
I. Austen and M. M. Chapman, “A Slow Thaw for the Great Lakes,” New York Times, p. B1, Mar. 24, 2015.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Journal of Photovoltaics
ISSN (print)2156-3381
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Condensed Matter Physics

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