How to format your references using the IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. Sihvola, “Physics. Enabling optical analog computing with metamaterials,” Science, vol. 343, no. 6167, pp. 144–145, Jan. 2014.
A journal article with 2 authors
A. D. Mesecar and D. E. Koshland Jr, “A new model for protein stereospecificity,” Nature, vol. 403, no. 6770, pp. 614–615, Feb. 2000.
A journal article with 3 authors
K. Imaizumi, J. Y. Shih, and H. E. Farris, “Global hyper-synchronous spontaneous activity in the developing optic tectum,” Sci. Rep., vol. 3, p. 1552, 2013.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Z. Zhao, Y.-A. Chen, A.-N. Zhang, T. Yang, H. J. Briegel, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental demonstration of five-photon entanglement and open-destination teleportation,” Nature, vol. 430, no. 6995, pp. 54–58, Jul. 2004.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
E. Knuth, Trading Between the Lines. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2011.
An edited book
D. Draheim and G. Weber, Eds., Trends in Enterprise Application Architecture: 2nd International Conference, TEAA 2006, Berlin, Germany, November 29 - December 1, 2006, Revised Selected Papers, vol. 4473. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
S. Ledger, L. Vidovich, and T. O’Donoghue, “Case Study One: Satu International School (SIS),” in Global to Local Curriculum Policy Processes: The Enactment of the International Baccalaureate in Remote International Schools, L. Vidovich and T. O’Donoghue, Eds. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2014, pp. 85–107.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Researchers Are Developing GM Pigs For Animal-To-Human Organ Transplant,” IFLScience, Aug. 14, 2015. .


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Physical Infrastructure: Crosscutting Issues Planning Conference Report,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-02-139, Oct. 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
H.-C. Hsieh, “Self-access center and autonomous learning: EFL college students’ motivations, activities and perceptions of learning effectiveness,” Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Almosawa and B. Hubbard, “Saudi-Led Airstrikes Blamed for Massacre of Scores of Yemeni Mourners,” New York Times, p. A14, Oct. 08, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Journal of Photovoltaics
ISSN (print)2156-3381
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Condensed Matter Physics

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