How to format your references using the IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D. E. Brash, “Cancer. Preprocancer,” Science, vol. 348, no. 6237, pp. 867–868, May 2015.
A journal article with 2 authors
G. Ceballos and P. R. Ehrlich, “Mammal population losses and the extinction crisis,” Science, vol. 296, no. 5569, pp. 904–907, May 2002.
A journal article with 3 authors
J. W. Reiner, F. J. Walker, and C. H. Ahn, “Materials science. Atomically engineered oxide interfaces,” Science, vol. 323, no. 5917, pp. 1018–1019, Feb. 2009.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J. Feng, R. G. Hennig, N. W. Ashcroft, and R. Hoffmann, “Emergent reduction of electronic state dimensionality in dense ordered Li-Be alloys,” Nature, vol. 451, no. 7177, pp. 445–448, Jan. 2008.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety, Guidelines for Determining the Probability of Ignition of a Released Flammable Mass. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2014.
An edited book
H. E. Roy, F. E. Vega, D. Chandler, M. S. Goettel, J. Pell, and E. Wajnberg, Eds., The Ecology of Fungal Entomopathogens. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
B. Boothby, “Autonomous Attack—Opportunity or Spectre?,” in Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law 2013, T. D. Gill, R. Geiß, R. Heinsch, T. McCormack, C. Paulussen, and J. Dorsey, Eds., The Hague: T.M.C. Asser Press, 2015, pp. 71–88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “The Man Behind The Nobel Prize In Physics On Neutrinos And Their Mass,” IFLScience. Accessed: Oct. 30, 2018. [Online]. Available:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Small Business Act: NASA’s Disadvantaged Business Advocate Not Reporting to Proper Management Level,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GGD-87-50, Apr. 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A. C. Beahm, “The political ecology of tourism development in the Ecuadorian Amazon,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
T. S. Bernard, “Prosecutors Open Criminal Investigation Into Sweeping Equifax Data Breach,” New York Times, p. B7, Sep. 18, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Journal of Photovoltaics
ISSN (print)2156-3381
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Condensed Matter Physics

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