How to format your references using the IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Mervis, “Behind the numbers. Salaries pump up biomedical inflation,” Science, vol. 349, no. 6245, p. 225, Jul. 2015.
A journal article with 2 authors
L. Zhang and J. A. Doudna, “Structural insights into group II intron catalysis and branch-site selection,” Science, vol. 295, no. 5562, pp. 2084–2088, Mar. 2002.
A journal article with 3 authors
C.-Y. T. Li, M.-M. Poo, and Y. Dan, “Burst spiking of a single cortical neuron modifies global brain state,” Science, vol. 324, no. 5927, pp. 643–646, May 2009.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Z.-M. Zhang et al., “Structural basis for DNMT3A-mediated de novo DNA methylation,” Nature, vol. 554, no. 7692, pp. 387–391, Feb. 2018.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R. Langton, Stability and Control of Aircraft Systems. Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2006.
An edited book
F. Contini and G. F. Lanzara, Eds., The Circulation of Agency in E-Justice: Interoperability and Infrastructures for European Transborder Judicial Proceedings, vol. 13. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
T. Arseneault and M. Filion, “Phenazine-Producing Pseudomonas spp. as Biocontrol Agents of Plant Pathogens,” in Microbial Inoculants in Sustainable Agricultural Productivity: Vol. 2: Functional Applications, D. P. Singh, H. B. Singh, and R. Prabha, Eds. New Delhi: Springer India, 2016, pp. 53–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Controversial Stem Cell Paper Set To Be Withdrawn From Nature,” IFLScience, May 29, 2014. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Special Education: Federal Actions Can Assist States in Improving Postsecondary Outcomes for Youth,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-03-773, Jul. 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
G. S. Takusi, “A quantitative analysis of the extrinsic and intrinsic turnover factors of relational database support professionals,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Loomis, “Bringing Fresh Interpretations to Vintage Verdi and Handel,” New York Times, p. 0, Jan. 22, 2013.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Journal of Photovoltaics
ISSN (print)2156-3381
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Condensed Matter Physics

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